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TEXAS-LOUISIANA SHEET FROM JOHN
MAP OF THE BRITISH AND FRENCH DOMINIONS IN NORTH AMERICA
26. [MAP]. [MITCHELL, John].
[Louisiana]. [London, 1755]. Engraved map. 67.5
x 48.5 cm (26-5/8 x 19-1/8 inches). Scale not stated (1
inch = approximately 35-1/2 miles). Center fold and one
small tear on right margin neatly repaired with tissue,
First edition, second issue (MCC 39, 54b) of Plate 4 of John Mitchell's eight-sheet A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America, showing in large scale the area from just east of New Orleans and the Mississippi River, west to Matagorda Bay and north to the lower Missouri River. Brown, Early Maps of the Ohio Valley, p. 96. Cumming 293: "The bibliographical problems involved in the various editions of this map are extensive"; pp. 47-49: "Politically and historically, if not cartographically, the Mitchell map is the most important in American history." DAB (article on Mitchell by Lawrence Martin, Chief of the Library of Congress Map Division 1924-46): "Without serious doubt Mitchell's is the most important map in American history." Fite & Freeman, A Book of Old Maps, pp. 181-84, 292-93. Martin & Bemis, "Franklin's Red-Line Map Was a Mitchell" (New England Quarterly X, p. 105). Ristow, A la Carte, pp. 102-113 (excellent discussion). Stevens & Tree, pp. 342-43. Tooley, Landmarks of Mapmaking, pp. 241-42.
Wheat, Transmississippi West 135: "The influence of this celebrated map on other cartographers would be hard to overestimate.... It became of particular importance during the negotiations by which the original boundaries of the United States were established after the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain"; I, p. 144: "It was in 1755 that John Mitchell published in London his celebrated 'Map of the British Dominions in North America,' which became of paramount importance when the boundaries of the infant United States were being agreed upon.... The lower Missouri is shown as a great river, and at the Pawnee villages Mitchell says 'Thus far the French ascend the Missouri'...while along the upper river is the legend, 'Missouri River is reckoned to run Westward to the Mountains of New Mexico, as far as the Ohio does Eastward'.... There appears on the westernly edge of the map the important legend, 'The Heads & Sources of these rivers [apparently referring to the Missouri, the Arkansas and the Red] and the countries beyond the bounds of this map are not well known. It is generally allowed to be 18 degrees of Longitude from the Forks of the Missisipi to the Mountains of New Mexico, whereas it is but 13 degrees from thence to the Atlantic Ocean: by which we see, that Louisiana, which was granted by Lewis XIV to N. Mexico, is much larger West of the Missisipi, than all our Colonies taken together would be if extended to the Missisipi."
Present-day Texas is shown as far west as the Guadalupe River (Corpus Christi, Austin, etc.). North Texas is the western portion of Louisiana, and South Texas is labeled "Country of the Cenis." Located are rivers, (Guadalupe, Rio Colorado or Cane River, Trinidad River, River Maligne or Sabloniere, Madelaine River, Mexican River, Red River, etc.), roads ("Road to Mexico and Mines of St. Barbe" and "Road to New Mexico"), Native American tribes (Taijas [i.e., Tejas], Cenis, Quiches, and many more, including along the coast "Wandering Savage Indians"), and legends relating to LaSalle in Texas. Detail along the Mississippi River is good, particularly at New Orleans. North Texas and the country north is sketchy.
Like Henry Popple, the first Englishman to make a serious large-scale map of America (1733), Mitchell's goal was "to point up the growing threat to British ambitions of French expansion" (Edmund & Dorothy Smith Berkeley, John Mitchell: The Man Who Made the Map of North America [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, (1974)], p. 173). This sheet from Mitchell's landmark map is the best sheet for a Texas collection, and seldom offered. A set of Mitchell's eight-sheet map sold at auction in 1998 for $40,000, and another set sold in 1997 for $39,600. To view the complete eight-sheet map and read an interesting essay on Mitchell's map, see the permanent web exhibition/description for the map prepared by Professor Matthew Edney at the University of Southern Maine: http://www.usm.maine.edu/~maps/mitchell/toc.html.
27. [MAP]. [BELLIN, Jacques N.]. Carte de la
Louisiane et Pays Voisins. Pour servir à l'Histoire
des Etablissemens Europeens. [Paris, 1757-1764?].
Engraved map, with later color wash. 33 in ink at
lower right. 21.2 x 29.6 cm (8-3/8 x 11-5/8 inches). Scale:
1 inch = approximately 50 French leagues. Title within
ornate botanical cartouche. Matted. Very fine.
This finely engraved and detailed map shows French Louisiana from Fort Duquêne and East Florida to Santa Fe, New Mexico, extending to show most of the Great Lakes (see Tooley, "A Mapping of the Great Lakes" in The Mapping of America, p. 316n). Located are Native American tribes, European settlements, missions and forts, etc. The map appears to be a slightly altered version (dimensions vary a bit and title changed) of Bellin's map of Louisiana that appeared in his 1764 Le Petite Atlas Maritime or perhaps another work. Bellin (1703-1772) spent over fifty years in the French Hydrographic Service where he was appointed the first Ingénieur hydrographic de la Marine and was a member of the Royal Society in London. He carried out major surveys along the known coasts of the world, and produced high-quality charts based on those surveys. See Phillips, America, p. 369 & Atlases 638.
Texas is shown as the western part of Louisiane and specifically, Ces Contrées et les Nations Sauvages sont peu Connues (between the Red River and Colorado) and Pais de Cenis (near the Trinity). Being a French map, naturally many place names and locations are found for La Salle's activities. Detail in Texas is fairly good, especially the rivers. The legend on the Colorado River gives an alternate name Riv. aux Cannes (River of Canes), in reference to its flowing through a large cane brake at the coast.
28. [MAP]. LONDON MAGAZINE. A New Map of the
River Mississipi from the Sea to Bayagoulas. [London,
1760]. Engraved map with original full color. 18.1 x 24 cm
(7 x 9 inches). Scale: 1-1/2 inches = 15 miles. Decorative
cartouche. Slightly browned. Under glass, matted, black
Detailed map of the Delta of the Mississippi River, locating New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain. Jolly, Maps of America in Periodicals Before 1800 179.
29. [MAP]. SAYER, Robert. A New Map of North
America, with the British, French, Spanish, Dutch, &
Danish Dominions on that Great Continent; and the West
India Islands, Done from the Latest Geographers, with Great
Improvements from the Sieurs D'Anville and Robert.
London: Robert Sayer, 1760. Engraved map with original
outline coloring. Two sheets joined at center, measuring
overall 57.3 x 95.3 cm (22-1/2 x 37-1/2 inches). Scale not
stated. Title within large floral motif cartouche at upper
left. Insets of ten plans showing harbors and navigational
directions at lower left: St. John's Harbour;
Boston Harbour; Stats Island [&] P. of Long
Island; Charlestown; Port Royal Harbour; Bay and City of
Havana; Bay of Porto Bella; La Vera Cruz; Cartagena Harbour
and Forts; The Port of Acapulco. Above inset of harbors
is another inset containing text setting forth division and
ownership of the North America continent and islands
by European powers. Copious text on map, including
progress of the French-Indian War, etc. A few short splits
neatly repaired, otherwise fine.
The only record we find thus far relating to this map is an undated version in the Library of Congress. Except for the date of 1760 on our copy, it is identical to the LC copy. The British Library has a copy of the 1763 issue, which has altered text to indicate the Peace Treaty after the French-Indian War, etc. Not in Cumming, Karpinski, Lowery, Phillips, Tooley, Wheat, etc.
Sellers & Van Ee, pp. 1-2 (citing the LC undated copy in entry 9: "During the first half of the eighteenth century, the quality of maps of the interior parts of North America was...poor.... In the decade of the 1750s, however, several landmark maps appeared.... The reasons for the increased interest in North American geography and the tremendous improvement in the quality of maps of the eastern half of the continent are not hard to find. Once again Great Britain and France faced the prospect of war over their territorial claims in the New World. As in all such struggles, the demand for maps of the war zone increased. In France, for example, map publishers like Jean Baptiste Nolin and Maurille Antoine Moithey took advantage of the situation to produce maps that favored French claims and denoted the 'pretentions des Anglois,' and in England mapmakers like John Lodge, Robert Sayer, and Emanuel Bowen highlighted the 'French Encroachments' in North America for the English-speaking world."
Mark Babinski has suggested that the inset maps appear to be copied from Herman Moll, except for Boston and New York, which may be from Popple or a great reduction of the charts found in The English Pilot (in the case of Boston). In the title, Sayer acknowledges his reliance on Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville and Didier Robert De Vaugondy; the present map may be based in part on Robert de Vaugondy's Amérique septentrionale...1750 [Paris, 1758]. While the present map is not one of the landmark maps of the era (Sayer usually drew upon the work of others), it is a rare and handsome production, being a large, separately issued map with news of the progress of the French-Indian War. Extensive text on the face of the map is decidedly pro-English, including: The French have stretched their Louisiana on both sides of the Mississipi, which is another instance of their Incroachment, for they have no just claim to any part of the Country lying Eastward of that River... But it is to be hoped that his British Majesty will no longer be kept unacquainted with ye Consequence of ye Country lying between ye British Settlements & ye Mississipi. Let this not be thought a remote contingency, for if the French settle on the Back of our Colonies, ye English must become subject to them in a little Time.
The present map has interest for the Transmississippi West, showing North America from coast to coast. The east is filled with place names and notes, but the West is rather sparse. Following D'Anville, Sayer left blank spaces on this map where knowledge was insufficient. Texas is shown as part of New Mexico, and located are rivers, Native American tribes, St. Bernardo Bay, and the island of Saint Joseph. Upper California is labeled New Albion, and Baja California is called California. California is shown as peninsular, and San Francisco designated Port Sr Francis Drake 1579. Text states: California was always thought to be an Island, till Eusebius Francis Kino a Jesuit between the Years 1698 and 1701 discovered it joyned to the Continent, of which the Royal Society received information in 1708. Burrus, Kino and the Cartography of Northwestern New Spain, p. 69: "Printed versions of Kino's 1710 map influenced in turn the productions of other cartographers [including] Sayer."
30. [CITY PLAN]. LONDON MAGAZINE. BENNING, R.
(engraver). Plan of New Orleans the Capital of
Louisiana. [London]: London Magazine, . Engraved
city plan. 18 x 23 cm (7 x 9 inches). Scale: 1 inch = 480
feet. Fine. Under glass, matted, ornate gilt frame.
An attractive French colonial view of New Orleans showing streets and buildings in what is now the French Quarter, surrounded mainly by swamplands. The only structure outside the Quarter is a plantation on the road to the Bayou St. John. Jolly, London Magazine 199. Phillips, America, p. 496.
SECOND PRINTED MAP TO APPLY THE NAME TEXAS TO A GEOGRAPHICAL REGION
31. [MAP]. ALZATE Y RAMÍREZ, José
Antonio de. Plano de la Nueva España en que se
señalan los viages que hizo el Capitan Hernan
Cortes...año de 1769. [Mexico, 1770]. Copper
engraved map with very subtle pastel outline wash (later?).
34.5 x 44 cm (13-5/8 x 17-1/4 inches). Scale not stated.
Engraved text at upper left regarding New Mexico and
Quivira. At lower left is engraved text giving Cortes'
route on ornate scroll with books, instruments, and charts.
A few expert repairs to folds, generally very fine.
First printing of one of the most important and handsome maps of the Gulf Coast printed in the eighteenth century, and the second printed map to apply the name Texas to a geographical region. The first printed map with that distinction was by the same cartographer and pre-dates the present map by about two years. For an illustration of Alzate y Ramírez's 1768 map, see Martin & Martin 20 and Wheat, Transmississippi West 149. Because the 1768 map is exceedingly rare, the present map is probably the first obtainable map to apply the name Texas to a geographical region.
The present map extends the Gulf Coast to the vicinity of Pensacola, while the earlier map shows the Coast only as far east as the Sabine River. Wheat (Transmississippi West I, p. 134) discusses the sources of Humboldt's famous 1811 map of New Spain and specifically cites Alzate y Ramírez as one of his major sources, indicating the importance of this cartographer's work. The present map appeared in Lorenzana's Historia de Nueva-Espana.... (Mexico: Hogal, 1770), the most beautiful book printed in Mexico in the eighteenth century. See Wagner, Spanish Southwest 152, Vindel, pp. 267-68, and Winsor II: 209.
32. [MAP]. LÓPEZ [DE VARGAS MACHUCA],
Tomás. Mapa mundi ó descripción de
todo el mundo, y en particular del globo terrestre sujeto
á las observaciones astronómicas. Por D.
Tómas López, Geografro de los Dominios de S.
M. de la Academia de S. Fernando, Madrid.... Madrid,
1771. Engraved map on heavy paper, later (?) full color,
pastel green wash. 49.4 x 59.7 cm (19-1/2 x 21-9/16
inches). Scale not stated. Double hemisphere map of the
world with highly decorated ornamental cartouche with
scroll and iconography of the arts and religion, fruit and
plants; four spheres below indicating planetary motions
according to Tycho Brahe, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and
Systema Compuesto por Capella. A few short tears
repaired, else fine, with vivid coloring.
A little known but important Spanish cartographer, López produced several atlases in the latter half of the eighteenth century, including Atlas de España (Madrid, 1757), Atlas de la América Septentrional (Paris, 1758), Atlas geográfico (Madrid, 1758), Atlas elemental (1792), etc. Palau 140279. Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 626. Locations in Texas and the Southwest that are designated include El Paso, B. de San Bernardo [Matagorda Bay], Nueva Orleans, Taos, Santa Fe, "Kanzez," Rio Grande, "Akansas," Natchitoches, San Juan, Durango, Casa Grande, etc. Native tribes, such as Apaches and Osages, are located. Spanish maps, like this and the Alzate (see Item 31 above) are exceedingly difficult to locate.
33. [MAP]. BONNE, [Charles-Marie Rigobert]. Le
Nouveau Méxique avec la partie septentrionale de
l'ancien ou de la Nouvelle Espange. [Geneva]: Bonne,
. Engraved map. 21.5 x 32.5 cm (8-1/2 x 12-3/4
inches). Scale: 1 inch = approximately 35 Spanish leagues.
At upper left: Liv. VI et X. Creased where formerly
folded into atlas, light marginal browning.
The map, which includes present-day Southwestern United States, Baja California, Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico as far southeast as Pensacola, was plate 28 in Bonne's Atlas de toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre.... (Geneva: J. L. Pellet, 1780), engraved by André. The atlas was published to accompany Guillaume Thomas François Raynal's L'Histoire philosophique & politique des établissemens & du commerce des européens dans les deux Indies. Burrus, Kino and the Cartography of Northwestern New Spain, Plate XVII & p. 68 (discussing Bonne's use of Kino's cartographical data): "The French Navy had its official map-maker called 'Ingénieur-Hydrographe de la Marine.' Monsieur Charles-Marie Rigobert Bonne was not content with the mere title, he was a most productive cartographer. In...Le Nouveau Méxique...the reader can compare element by element on the pertinent areas to see how closely Bonne copied Kino's 1710 map. Undoubtedly he used a copy, that of 1724 or some other, for the same misspellings are preserved and some new ones are added." Lowery 545. Phillips, Atlases 652.
34. [MAP]. RIZZI-ZANNONI, [Giovanni Antonio].
Carte Geo-Hydrographique du Golfe du Mexique et de ses
Isles.... Paris: [Jean] Lattré, ca. 1780.
Engraved map, original outline color in pink. 31 x 44 cm
(12 x 17-1/4 inches). Scale not stated. Ornate cartouche
with medallion and botanical element at top right. Rhumb
lines. No. 34 at top right. Minor wear and a few
very light stains. Under glass, matted, ornate silver
This handsome map, which shows the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, appeared in Jean Lattré's Atlas moderne ou collection de cartes sur toutes les parties du globe terrestre.... (Paris: Lattré et Delalain, [1762-1783]). Rizzi-Zannoni (ca. 1736-1814), served as Geographer to the Republic of Venice and later as Chief Hydrographer of the Dépôt de Marine. He assisted in a survey of the French-English boundary in North America in 1757 and created the first modern map of Naples. Phillips, Atlases 3013.
35. [MAP]. BONNE, [Charles-Marie Rigobert].
L'Ancien et le Nouveau Méxique avec la Floride et
la Basse Louisiane Partie Orientale. [With]:
L'Ancien et le Nouveau Mexique, avec la Floride et la
Basse Louisiane Partie Occidentale. [Paris, 1787-1788].
2 engraved maps printed on good quality rag paper, outline
coloring. Each map measures 34.7 x 23.6 cm (13-3/4 x 9-1/4
inches). Scale: 1 inch = approximately 150 miles. First map
with 115 at upper right; second map with 117.
Creased where formerly folded into atlas, else very fine,
The two maps, which were engraved by André, probably appeared in the Atlas encyclopédique put out by Bonne and N. Desmarest (Paris: Hôtel de Thou, 1787-1788). This atlas was to accompany Géographie ancienne and Géographie moderne Volume 92-97 of Encyclopédie méthodique, published separately until the complete set appeared. Lowery 675 & 677. Phillips, Atlases 666. See Item 33 above.
36. [ATLAS]. BRUYSET, Jean-Marie. Atlas des
enfans, ou nouvelle méthode pour apprendre la
geographie, avec un nouveau traite de la sphere, et XXIV
cartes enluminées, nouvelle édition,
corrigée & augmentée. Lyon:
Jean-Marie Bruyset, Pere & Fils, 1790. xvi, 186 pp.,
engraved frontispiece (baby Atlas with giant sphere on
shoulders, background of surveyors ships at sea, and city
view), 24 engraved hand-colored foldout maps, most
measuring approximately 9.1 x 12 cm (3-5/8 x 4-5/8 inches).
16mo, full contemporary tree sheep, spine gilt-lettered and
with red morocco label. Binding worn, scuffed, and chipped,
joints cracked but strong, interior and maps fine.
A charming petite atlas and geography for children. The first edition seems to have been as early as 1772 (Amsterdam), with subsequent editions in 1774 and 1783.
37. [MAP]. KITCHIN, Thomas. Mexico or New
Spain, in which the Motions of Cortes may be traced. For
the Rev. Dr. Robertson's History of America. [London]:
W. Strahan & T. Cadell, 1795. Engraved map. 29 x 39 cm
(11-1/4 x 15-1/4 inches). Scale: 1-3/4 inches = 240 miles.
Inset at lower left: Supplement of the Environs of
Mexico [City]. Title enclosed in floral cartouche,
small compass rose. Two small tears and a small chip on
right edge, otherwise fine.
Burrus, Kino and the Cartography of Northwestern New Spain, p. 69 (discussing the influence of Kino's revolutionary map on subsequent cartographers): "Thomas Kitchin in various editions of Robertson's History of America [is] almost identical with Bonne's production [see Item 33 above]; Kitchin, however, did not copy Bonne, if the configuration of Lower California is a decisive element. All of the islands keep the names Kino gave them." Howes R358. Wheat, Transmississippi West 172: (referring to 1777 edition): "This map was used to illustrate William Robertson's History of America, and was again used in the 1795 and 1812 editions.... It is of interest largely for its paucity of information, though it does concede California to be a peninsula. The Pimería and New Mexico areas are fairly well drawn, though with little detail, and east of New Mexico, as far as the Akansas (sic) River, is a wide white area labeled 'Great Space of Land Unknown.'" According to Hill (p. 254), the maps to accompany the first edition of Robertson's book were not finished in time to be included in the first edition.
38. [SURVEY MAP]. MARTIN, Gilbert. Untitled
original manuscript survey map of the farms belonging to
Jacob Badows(?) and Joseph Hyatts in Louisiana. N.p., 1796.
Manuscript map in sepia ink and yellow wash. 28.6 x 42.5 cm
(11-1/4 x 16-3/4 inches). Scale: 1 inch = 25 pearches.
Survey of farms by the request of David Montross. Compass
rose. Some minor browning and small stains, a few splits
and creases at folds. Under glass, modern gilt frame.
The map shows an area probably just below New Orleans, on Bayou Jean Lafitte.
RARE PROTOTYPE SEA CHART OF TEXAS & THE GULF COAST
39. [MAP]. FRANCE. DÉPÔT
GÉNÉRAL DE LA MARINE. Carte des
côtes du Golfe du Mexique compris entre la pointe sud
de la presqu'Ile de la Floride et la pointe nord de la
presqu'Ile d'Yucatan: Dresée d'après le
observations et las plans des espagnols, et publièe
par ordre du Minstre de la Marine et des Colonies, au
Depôt Général de la Marine An IX.
Paris, 1800. Engraved map on heavy rag paper. 59.1 x 90 cm
(23-1/4 x 35-1/2 inches). Scale not stated. At foot, below
neat line at left: Gravé par E. Collin, et
éscrit par Besançon. Title within oval at
top. Insignia of French Hydrography Office at lower left.
Rhumb lines. Minor repair at upper center fold, otherwise
First French edition of "the first printed [map] to show and name Galveston Bay" (Taliaferro) and "the first large-scale printed chart of Texas and the Gulf Coast based on actual soundings and explorations" (Martin & Martin); the first printing of this handsome chart appeared in Madrid in 1799; the present French version quickly followed, appearing in J. N. Bellin et al., Hydrographie Françoise; all versions of this chart are exceedingly rare. Lowery 721n. Phillips, Atlases 590. Taliaferro (in a private communication commented): "The French edition is virtually identical to the Spanish of the preceding year, but is more finely engraved. The Carta esférica is one of the most important maps for the history of Texas. For the first time, the Texas coast was mapped from actual survey, and the chart was the first in print to show and name Galveston Bay.... Later map makers who made use of the chart in one fashion or another included Alexander von Humboldt and John Melish, and it was not until the publication of Austin's map in 1830 that the configuration introduced on the Carta esférica was superceded. Both the Spanish and French editions are very scarce. Streeter located just eight copies of the [various issues] of the Spanish edition and four copies of the French among seventy-six important institutional collections that he surveyed. Streeter locates no copies of the French edition in Texas.
"In 1783 the interim governor of Spanish Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, commissioned one of his lieutenants, José Antonio de Evía, to explore and map the entire northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, from West Florida to Tampico. After a false start in 1783, Evía set out in 1785 and explored the coasts and bays of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Mexico, reaching Tampico in September 1786. Along the way he explored San Bernardo Bay and took detailed soundings of Galveston Bay, which he named for his patron, who had by then been named viceroy of Mexico. More than a decade after Evía's careful explorations, his charts and sketches formed the basis for a new map of the Gulf Coast issued at the request of Don Juan Francisco de Lángara y Huarte, the Spanish secretary of state and of the navy. Published in 1799, the Carta esférica que comprende las costas del Seno Mexicano represented an important advance in geographical knowledge and remained for many years the prototype for maps of the Gulf." Martin & Martin 22A (citing the Madrid 1799 printing).
Streeter 1030 (locating four copies: Library of Congress, Harvard, New York Public Library, and the British Museum): "The [French edition] seems almost identical with the Depósito Hidrográfico chart of 1799 [Streeter 1029] as far as the Texas coast line and rivers are concerned. On this chart Passe del Caballo is shown twice, the name for the lower pass, perhaps an error, being new on this chart." Streeter in the introduction to the second part of his bibliography of Texas (p. 329) designates the 1799 Spanish version of this map (three copies located) as one of the six maps especially desirable for a Texas collection, commenting that in the final years of the eighteenth century "even the coast line of Texas was little known and its delineation by...a chart of the Depósito Hidrográfico de Marina of Spain entitled Carta esférica que comprende las costas del Seno Mexicano...represents a real advance. It is the first of two or three early maps showing the Texas coast line and the lower courses of its rivers. This Carta esférica was one of the authorities used by Humboldt in constructing his highly acclaimed Carte Générale du Royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne [see Item 41 below]."
40. [MAP]. GARCÍA CONDE, Diego. Plano
general de la Ciudad de Mexico levantado por el Teniente
Coronel de Dragones Don Diego García Conde en el
año de 1793, y grabado en el año de 1807. De
orden de la misma Nobilísima Ciudad. [Mexico,
1807]. Copper-engraved wall map within restrained botanical
border, mounted on later linen with dark brown heavy
grosgrain silk ribbon reinforcement along all edges, upper
and lower edges mounted on later wooden rollers (upper
roller is a decorative cornice). 147.6 x 197.6 cm (58-1/8 x
77-13/16 inches). Scale: One inch = approximately 100
Spanish varas. Oversize ornate cartouche at top (drapery
and architectural devices, medallions illustrating royal
arms of Spain and Mexico City, text below). Two vignettes
at lower left: Vista I. De levante desde el camino nuevo
de Vera-Cruz. [and] Vista II. De Poniente desde el
camino de Chapultepec. Between the views is a legend
enclosed within botanical border (locations keyed to
numbers). Lower right: Dn. Rafael Ximeno y Planes,
Director Gral. de la Rl. Academia de Sn. Cárlos de
esta capital de México, dibujó las vistas y
adornos. D Manuel López pensionado que fue del
grabado en la misma R. Academia y tambien, por esta N C lo
estampo. Dn. Josef Joaquín Fabregat, Director del
grabado en lámina de la misma Real Academia, lo
grabo. Large table in eight columns at right (streets
and other features keyed to numbers and letters). Scale
decorated with swags at lower right. The map is varnished
(as was customary for wall maps of the nineteenth century),
resulting in the typical amber patina with some cracking. A
conservator has examined the map, and the varnish is a type
that can be removed. Moderate rubbing, cracks, and
occasional minor losses (affecting only blank margins), due
to rolling and unrolling over time. The map was printed on
nine individual copper-plates, and there is some splitting
at the junctures of the nine sheets. Despite these flaws,
inherent due to the nature of wall maps and their use, this
map is in remarkable condition.
First and only printing in large format (the plates for this map were destroyed and lost, but the map was republished in much smaller format in London in 1811, and again in New York in 1830. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, El Territorio Mexicano II, p. 761 (illustrated). Mayer, Poblaciones Mexicanos: Planos y panoramos siglos XVI al XIX, pp. 76-77 (illustrated): "This is probably the most important plan that had been drawn up of Mexico City in the nineteenth century not only for its size, which made it necessary to use nine large plates and to join the nine resulting sheets of paper from its printing, but for the excellence of the artists involved in drawing and engraving it. This plan became the source to many others because it was copied and updated by several authors and editors." Museo Nacional de Historia Castillo de Chapultepec, Mapas y Planos de México Siglos XVI al XIX, p. 125. Palau 98695 (incorrectly ascribing the map to Pedro García Conde).
This grandiose map of one of the greatest cities in the world is exceedingly rare. The only copy we locate in the United States is in the Bancroft Library at the University of California (Berkeley). In Mexico, we found two copies, one at the Museo de la Ciudad de Mexico (Orozco y Berra copy), and another in a private collection. The British Library owns a copy.
The original survey for this map of Mexico City took place in 1793, during the viceregal administration (1789-1794) of the energetic and efficient Conde de Revillagigedo. His administration, one of the most progressive of the colonial era, resulted in urban development and renewalincluding construction and renovation of numerous public buildings and parks, improved sanitation, lighting, and security, construction of roads and streets, and establishment of professional schools (such as the Academy of San Carlos, where this map was produced). The map, conceived and created at one of the best moments in the history of Mexico City, is also one of the most unusual examples of Mexican printingnothing of that size had ever been engraved in Mexico before.
This map was the combined creation of a noteworthy cartographer, a talented, influential engraver, and a highly skilled artist. The mapmaker was Diego García Conde (1760-1822), a native of Barcelona, who came to Mexico and served as captain of the Spanish Dragoons in Mexico and fought the insurgents during the War of Independence. García Conde supervised several complex construction projects, including the road from Veracruz to Jalapa. In 1822 he was named Director General of the Corps of Engineers and founded the Academy of Cadets. Dicc. Porrúa (p. 1156) specifically mentions the present map as one of his great achievements: "Su nombre está ligado a la historia de la cd. de México, por el magnífico plano que levantó de metrópoli in 1793." Palau and Tooley (Dictionary of Mapmakers) combines in one entry Diego García Conde and an entirely different mapmaker, Pedro García Conde (see The Handbook of Texas Online for details on Pedro García Conde [1806-1851], commissioner of the Mexican Boundary Survey in 1848).
The engraver of the map was José Joaquín Fabregat (1748-1807), a native of Valencia. In 1787, the Spanish crown named Fabregat Director of Engraving at the Royal Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City. Here Fabreget instituted the highest standards for printing and engraving, introducing the most advanced techniques from Europe. The recognition of engraving as an art and royal patronage led to unprecedented expansion of the arts outside of Madrid. Among those participating in this flourishing era of engraving was Rafael Jimeno y Planés (1759-1825), the Valencia artist who created the exquisite vignettes at the lower section of this map. Jimeno y Planés studied at the Academy of San Carlos, and also in Rome and Madrid. In 1798 he became Director of Painting at the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico, and subsequently Director General. Jimeno created the engravings for the 1780 edition of Don Quijote, the famous engraving of the Plaza Mayor de México (adapted by Humboldt), grand murals, and fine oil paintings. An article on Jimeno y Planes appears in Dicc. Porrúa. For additional information on Fabreget, see Tooley, Dictionary of Mapmakers (1979 edition) and Dicc. Porrúa (p. 1046).
"WITHOUT QUESTION THE BEST
REPRESENTATION OF TEXAS
THAT HAD THUS FAR APPEARED" STREETER
41. [ATLAS & TEXT]. HUMBOLDT, Alexander von.
Essai Politique sur le Royaume de la
Nouvelle-Espagne.... Paris: F. Stône, 1811. 
xcii  iv -350  +  -868  -905 
pp. 2 vols., 4to, contemporary calf over later boards
(corners renewed), black gilt-lettered spine labels.
[With]: Atlas geographique et physique du Royaume de la
Nouvelle-Espagne.... Paris: G. Dufour et
Cie., 1812. iv  pp., 20 engraved maps and
plates on heavy rag paper (many double-page, some with
several maps per sheet, most of the plates in sepia tone).
Three of the maps are of particular interest for the
Transmississippi West: (1) four segments on two sheets:
Carte Générale du Royaume de la Nouvelle
Espagne depuis le parallele de 16° jusqu'au parallele
de 38° (Latitude Nord) dressée sur des
observations astronomiques et sur l'ensemble des
matériaux qui existoient à Mexico, au
commencement de l'année 1804.... Measuring
overall 100 x 70 cm (39-1/2 x 27-1/2 inches), with keyed
location symbols at lower left for cities, villages, mines,
haciendas, ranches, presidios, etc.; (2) Carte du
Mexique et des pays limitrophes situés au Nord et
à l'est dressée d'apres la grande carte de la
Nouvelle-Espagne.... 40.5 x 71 cm (15-7/8 x
17-15/16 inches); (3) Carte de la route que
mène depuis la capitale de la Nouvelle Espagne
jusqu'à S. Fe de Nouveau Mexique.... Tall folio,
recent three-quarter tan levant morocco over brown
paper-covered boards, spine with raised bands and black
gilt-lettered calf labels. Text vols. have fresh
pastedowns, all plates in Atlas reattached to new
stubs, occasional minor spotting or light staining, second
text vol. title with slight abrasion to right blank margin.
Overall a fine, complete set, with all the half-titles,
plates, and maps, which are in excellent impressions.
First French edition, second issue, identical to the first issue (also published in 1811) with the exception of printer's name being added to title (a German edition was published in Tubigen, 1809-14, with less plates and maps). Graff 2009-10. Howes H786: "Of superlative California importance." Martin & Martin, 23 & pp. 19, 32: "A noteworthy turning point in the cartographic history of Texas occurred in 1810, when the great European savant, Alexander von Humboldt, had been a guest of the Spanish government in Mexico.... His semi-official status provided him access to many confidential sources, and among the works his stay produced was a large map of New Spain. Although he left Mexico in 1804, the map was not published until 1810, when it appeared with his Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain.... Humboldt was, without question, the dominant scientific and philosophical figure of his age.... Humboldt's Essai Politique...was one of the first to establish the field of geography as a modern science.... Humboldt's map [of New Spain] has been termed a magnificent cartographic achievement, which in its depiction of the West it surely is."
Plains & Rockies IV:7a:3 & 7a:3a:l: "Humboldt's discussions of California, New Mexico, Texas and Northern Mexico are detailed and thorough, containing much data that had never before appeared in print." Printing & the Mind of Man 320n. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, Plate 139 & p. 127: "Humboldt's map remained the standard map of the Great Basin region until Frémont's expeditions thirty-five years later." Raines, p. 121. Streeter 1042 (rating Humboldt's map as one of the six most important maps for a Texas collection; see p. 329 in Streeter): "In speaking of the Texas coast line, Humboldt says, 'I have followed...the map of the gulph of Mexico, published by order of the King of Spain in 1799' [see Item 39 above]...and adds that he made some corrections in fixing of longitudes.... [Humboldt's map] is without question the best representation of Texas that had thus far appeared." Wheat, Transmississippi West, 272-75, 302-305 & pp. 132-38: "[A] truly magnificent cartographic achievement." See Martin & Martin, Streeter, and Wheat for more on the cartographical controversy that arose over the priority of Humboldt, Pike, and Arrowsmith. Streeter maintains that the Humboldt map dates from 1809.
View two more illustrations of this item>
42. [MAP]. PINKERTON, John. Spanish Dominions
in North America Northern Part. London: Cadell &
Davies, 1811. Engraved map, original outline coloring. 50.5
x 70.2 cm (19-7/8 x 27-5/8 inches). Scale: 1 inch =
approximately 65 miles. Legend. Creased where formerly
folded into atlas.
This map, which appeared in Pinkerton's 1815 Modern Atlas, closely follows the Humboldt-Pike-Arrowsmith conformation. Phillips, Atlases 724.
43. [MAP]. STREIT, F. W. Charte von dem
Nordamericanischen Staatenbunde.... Leipzig, .
Engraved map, original outline coloring corresponding to
keyed color chart and numbers at top right. 38.5 x 47 cm
(15-1/4 x 18-1/2 inches). Scale: 1 inch = approximately 140
miles. Creased where formerly folded, a few repairs to
short marginal tears, moderately browned and chipped at
lower right edge (no losses).
Viennese cartographer Streit shows Texas outlined in pink and in a really odd shapewithout the big bend in the Rio Grande and a widened Panhandle that narrows at the 40th parallel and then shoots off northwest to north of Salt Lake. Keyed locations for cities, villages, forts, Native American lands, universities, waterfalls, roads, etc. States and territories are numbered rather than named, and colored in outline to correspond to the key at top right. Streit, who served as an engineer in the Prussian artillery, was a mathematician and military cartographer.
FRENCH PIKE IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS
44. [BOOK]. PIKE, Zebulon M. Voyage au
Nouveau-Mexique...Orné d'une Nouvelle Carte de la
Louisiane, en trois parties.... Paris: Chez d'Hautel,
1812. xiv  368 + 373 pp., 3 folding, engraved maps on
heavy rag paper: (1) Première partie de la carte
de l'intérieur de la Louisiane, Par. Z. M. Pike.
(Voyez les indications sur la Planche IIe)
[at foot: Réduit sur une échelle d'un
pouce pour 40 miles, par Antoine Nau. 43.5 x 45 cm
(16-15/16 x 17-3/4 inches); (2) Carte de
l'intérieur de la Louisiane, comprenant tous les
pays jusqu'alors inconnus, entre la Rivière Plate,
au N. la Rivière Rouge, au S. le Mississippi
à l'E. et les Montagnes du Mexique à l'O.
Avec une partie du Nouveau Mexique et de la Province de
Texas, par le Major Z. M. Pike. 43 x 38 cm (16-7/8 x
14-15/16 inches); (3) Carte du Mississippi, depuis sa
Source jusqu'à l'embouchure du Missouri;
dressée d'après les notes de A. M. Pike, par
Antoine Nau; réduite et corrigée
d'après les observations de M. Thompson à sa
source, et du Capitaine M. Lewis à son confluent
avec le Missouri, par Nicolas King. 22.5 x 70 cm (8-7/8
x 27-5/8 inches). 2 vols., 8vo, original plain mauve
wrappers, printed paper spine labels. Lower wrap of Vol. 1
torn, Vol. 2 lacking lower wrap. Occasional marginal
browning and slight wear, but a beautiful, uncut set in
original state in the rare wrappers with printed paper
labels. Preserved in a half crimson morocco box and
First French edition of Pike's classic account of the first U.S. government expedition to the Southwest (first edition, Philadelphia, 1810). M. Breton translated the better arranged English edition of 1811 into French. The important maps are corrected and improved; of all the editions of Pike, the maps in this French edition are the most beautifully engraved and on the best quality paper. Basic Texas Books 163C: "Pike's narrative marks the beginning of serious American interest in Texas." Coues, Pike I: xl-xliii. Howes 373. Martin & Martin 24n: "Pike's map, unlike Humboldt's, was based primarily on firsthand reconnaissance, an element always present in the progress of geographic knowledge of the American West." Plains & Rockies IV:9:3. Raines, p. 165.
Streeter 1047C (on pp. 327-28, Streeter rates Pike's account as one of the top forty books for a Texas collection): "This famous book is included here because of Pike's account...of his journey across Texas from the Rio Grande to the Sabine in June, 1807, and his description of Texas.... Pike's account of the journey and of the week he spent at San Antonio, where he was handsomely entertained by the Spanish officials, makes interesting reading. The description of Texas is excellent...and the Sibley account of the Red River region seems to be the first in English. Humboldt's charges that his Carte Générale...de la Nouvelle Espagne [see Item 41 herein] was copied by Pike in the maps of Mexico accompanying his Account...are justified as far as the Mexican portion of the Carte Générale is concerned, but not for the Texas portion. There, far from copying Humboldt, Pike's representation of Texas rivers is considerably better than Humboldt's and his treatment of the Texas coast line much inferior.... Not only are the Texas portions of the Pike maps an improvement on Humboldt, but their legends are of great interest." See Wheat (Transmississippi West 296, 297, 398) for citation of Pike's maps from the Philadelphia 1810 edition. See also Wheat's chapter XII, "Pike Maps the Southwest."
45. [MAP]. THOMSON, John. Spanish North
America. [Edinburgh]: John Thomson & Co, 1814.
Engraved map, original hand-coloring and outlining. 51 x
61.6 cm (20-1/8 x 24-1/4 inches). Scale: 1 inch = 80 miles.
Some minor staining and chipping to blank margins.
This Humboldt-Pike type map of New Spain appeared as Map No. 58 in Thomson's New General Atlas (1814). Phillips, Atlases 731n (citing the 1817 edition). The cartographer understandably felt conflicted about the area that is now Texas, but to cover all bases, he labeled various parts of Texas (often overlapping) as: Louisiana, Coahuila, S. Louis Potosi, New Santander, and Bolson de Mapimi. Taliaferro 206. Wheat, Transmississippi West II, p. 15: "Beautiful but inexcusably outdated in light of what was to occur that very year when Lewis and Clark's great map was published.... Until [Lewis and Clark's map], no cartographer could do more than add a few wild guesses to maps stemming from a period then long past"; 320: "This map seems largely based on the maps of Humboldt and Pike, including the country as far north as the latter's 'Highest Peak.'"
46. [MAP]. [ARROWSMITH, A. & S. Lewis
(attrib.)]. Spanish Dominions in North America.
[London: Arrowsmith, 1816]. Engraved map, original full
color. 20.3 x 25.4 cm (8 x 10 inches). Scale not stated.
Upper right corner: Vol. III page 135. Trimmed
The attribution of cartographer and date on this map are from the dealer from whom it was purchased, and perhaps erroneous. In its layout, this map appears to be a small format version of Items 42 (Pinkerton) and 45 (Thomson) above, but without the rich detail of either, or their sources (Humboldt-Pike). Texas is applied to the region as a name, however, a trend which usually does not occur until a decade or so after 1816.
47. [MAP]. [CAREY, Mathew]. Louisiana.
[Philadelphia, 1817]. Engraved map, original outline
coloring in pink, yellow, and green. 39 x 43 cm (15-3/8 x
16-7/8 inches). Scale: 1 inch = 20 miles. Delicately
engraved scroll work around title. Other than very faint
browning, very fine. Under glass, matted, modern wooden
The map is No. 26 from Carey's General Atlas, Improved and Enlarged: Being a Collection of Maps of the World and Quarters, Their Principal Empires, Kingdoms, &c.... Phillips, Atlases 4311.
ONE OF THE VERY EARLIEST TEXAS LITHOGRAPHS
48. [PRINT: CHAMP D'ASILE]. VERNET, [Emile Jean]
Horace. [Paris, 1818]. Lithograph (Champ d'Asile colonists
in the Texas wilderness, soldier in foreground leaning on
shovel at a new campsite, others behind working, cabins in
distance at left, ships at sea in background at right). 16
x 22.9 cm (6-1/4 x 9 inches). Lower right: Lith. de G.
Engelmann. Signed in print at center below image:
Horace Vernet. Light uniform age-toning, short clean
tear to blank right margin.
This lithograph is among the earliest lithographs of a scene in Texas. French artist Vernet (1789-1863) depicts a scene from the short-lived settlement of Napoleonic exiles who were ultimately expulsed from their colony site on the Trinity at the far reaches of the Spanish frontier. See Item 49 below for more on the Champ d'Asile Colony. The print apparently was the cover for sheet music (not present) entitled Le Champ d'Asile Romance with lyrics by A. Beraud and music by G. Kuhn. The print was created to raise funds to assist the ill-fated colonists who were stranded in Texas after expulsion by Spanish authorities. Streeter (1071) dated the piece as 1819, but David Lavender was able to fix the date of publication in 1818. Lavender located an announcement of publication of the sheet music in the November 1818 issue of La Minerve Française.
Ron Tyler, in his preliminary research on nineteenth-century lithographs of Texas notes that the four earliest lithographs of Texas (all of which relate to Champ d'Asile) were created in 1818. Tyler comments: "Published for the benefit of the refugees by M. Ladvocat...the lithographic cover...appears to be the most realistic image of all the Champ d'Asile pictures, because the camp is clearly an area of construction, not the idyllic or romantic environment shown in the other prints." Streeter (1071) located only one copy (his own copy, now at Yale), but Tyler found additional copies at the University of North Texas in Denton, New York Public Library (image only), and the Bayou Bend Collection (Houston). See also Item 51 herein.
NAPOLEONIC EXILES ON THE TRINITY
WITH ENGRAVED PLAN OF THE COLONY
49. [BOOK]. HARTMANN, L. & MILLARD. Le
Texas, ou notice historique sur le Champ d'Asile....
Paris: Béguin, 1819.  ix  -135 pp.,
folding engraved frontispiece plan of fort: Champ
D'Asile. 16.5 x 23.8 cm (6-1/2 x 9-3/8 inches). 12mo,
modern navy blue morocco over marbled boards, spine
gilt-lettered and ruled. Expertly restored (some leaves and
plate neatly reinforced and cleaned). Half-title verso with
certification statement signed by author Hartmann and
First edition. Basic Texas Books 85: "Best contemporary account of the ill-fated colony of Napoleonic refugees in Texas. Of the four accounts by contemporaries, Thomas W. Streeter calls this one 'an indispensable source and by far the best of the group.' Besides giving an eyewitness account of one of the most fascinating events in Texas history, it includes much valuable information on Texas during a period that still remains historically clouded. Lallemand, in founding Champ d'Asile near present-day Liberty, intended to start a massive French colony which might ultimately begin a movement to win the throne of Mexico for Joseph Bonaparte. The group of about 150 colonists landed at Galveston on January 14, 1818, and sailed up the Trinity River on March 20 to build their colony. Attempts were made to make peace with Jean Laffite, whose pirate band was then operating out of Galveston. When the Spanish governor of Texas sent a force against the colonists, they abandoned the settlement in late July and retreated to Galveston. They were saved from starvation by Laffite, who helped them get to New Orleans. Although attempts were made to renew the colony, the project languished."
Eberstadt 162:386: "Streeter calls the book...the most sought after of those 'relating to that colorful episode in Texas history.'" Fifty Texas Rarities 6. Howes H270. Monaghan 792. Rader 1807. Raines, p. 109. Sabin 30706. Streeter 1069: "This is the second of the three books relating to the Champ d'Asile published in Paris in 1819.... Le Texas, which is in the form of two diaries, the first at pages -111 by Hartmann and the second, pages 112-132, by Millard, is the only one of the three to give a brief but more or less consecutive account of the founding of the colony, the life there, the retreat to Galveston, and the dispersal of the colonists to the four winds." Ron Tyler, in his preliminary research on nineteenth-century lithographs of Texas notes the four earliest lithographs of Texas (all of which relate to Champ d'Asile) were created in 1818.
ONE OF THE 50 TEXAS
WITH THE TARDIEU MAP
50. [BOOK]. L'H[ÉRITIER], L[ouis]
F[rançois]. Le Champ-d'Asile, Tableau
Topographique et Historique du Texas...seconde
édition, augmentée...et accompagnée
d'une Carte du Texas.... Paris: Ladvocat, 1819. xvi,
247 pp., folding engraved map: Le Champ-d'Asile ou carte
des établissements fondés dans
l'Amérique Septentrionale par les
Réfugiés Français d'abord au Texas, et
Tombechbé. Dessinée par Ladvocat
d'après les Matériaux qui ont
été envoyés par un des principaux
Colons. Mars 1819. Gravé par B. Tardieu. T. Pelicier
scr. á Paris, chez Ladvocat.... 28.3 x
43.7 cm (11-1/4 x 17-1/8 inches). Scale: 1 inch =
approximately 75 miles. Inkstamp of publisher at lower
margin of map (as in the copy at the Center for American
History, UT Austin). 12mo, contemporary brown speckled calf
over tan boards, spine gilt stamped, scarlet leather label.
Binding slightly rubbed and spine label chipped, top of
upper joint weak, otherwise fine, with small contemporary
French library ink stamp on title page. Neat ink notes of a
French collector on front free endpaper (dated 1929).
First edition, third and best issue, with the added text and the map which did not accompany the first and second issues. Barbier 557. Fifty Texas Rarities 6: "[One of] the principal sources for the history of the unsuccessful French colony of Napoleonic exiles in Texas." Graff 2487. Howes L329. Raines, p. 109n.
Streeter 1072B: "Though...there is additional preliminary material in the later issue of the first edition [which did not have the map] and in the second edition, the main text of 247 pages is the same in all three.... A fanciful and idealized account of the Champ d'Asile, with much padding. Chapter XII gives an extensive account of the laws said to have been adopted by the colonists, and at page 44-47 is the text of the Manifesto of May 11, 1818. Chapters II-IX, pages 25-149, are mostly an account of Texas...perhaps the lengthiest to its date in book form.... The sixteen new preliminary pages in the later issues briefly announce the destruction of the colony...and report at some length on the opportunities offered the Champ d'Asile refugees at the first settlement of the French exiles at Tombigbee in Alabama. Various misstatements, some extraordinary, such as that the United States, which was then claiming all of Texas, had granted the colonists 'le territoire entier du Texas...reconnaissant e adoptant les colons pour alliés'...that General Lallemand had just established a school at Nacogdoches...and that several dances had been given 'auquels ont assisté tous les habitans de San-Antonio de Bejar'.... L'Héritier was a French soldier and writer who took an active part as editor of liberal journals.... One reference book refers to him as 'publiciste et romancier.'" Vandale 102.
The excellent map, engraved on good heavy French rag paper in the elegant Humboldt style, shows Texas and the Gulf Coast to Florida, with good detail, locating Champ d'Asile with a marker with flag (Colonie Française fondée par les Fréres Lallemant), missions, presidios, native tribes, etc. This book is said to be one of the first printed books to contain the word "Texas" in its title.
EARLY ENGRAVING OF TEXAS NAPOLEONIC EXILES
51. [PRINT: CHAMP D'ASILE]. GARNERAY, [Ambroise
Louis (artist & engraver)]. 2eme Vue
d'Aigleville, Colonie du Texas ou Champ d'Asile.
Rivière de la Trinité, Fort Charles....
Paris: Basset, . Aquatint engraving (romanticized
scene of Champ d'Asile with colonists dressed in elegant
Regency mode, French soldiers in full military uniform, new
arrivals being welcomed with open arms, colonists in
background constructing Fort Charles and a home for General
Rigaud on the palm-tree lined Trinity River with lofty[!]
mountains in the background). 27.5 x 33.3 cm (10-7/8 x
13-1/8 inches). A few tears in blank margins neatly mended,
some soiling and spotting (mainly confined to blank
margins), generally very good.
Garneray's beautiful print is one of the earliest engravings of a scene or subject related to Texas (in his preliminary survey of Texas engravings, Dr. Kelsey locates only about six earlier prints, and only one of the nineteenth century images is earlier, a portrait of Z. M. Pike from the 1810 edition of his book). This print, like Item 48 above, was created by French artist Garneray (1783-1837) to raise funds for the ill-fated Champ d'Asile colonists. Pinckney, Painting in Texas, pp. 11-12: "Among the earliest and most significant prints depicting Texas in the very early years of its settlement [representing] Garneray's precise and masterly designing [and] some of the best craftsmanship of the high period in French engraving. They suggest all the romance, the excitement, and the dauntless spirit of the French temperament, but on retrospection they reveal the tragedy and shortsightedness of those who prompted the settlement." See The Handbook of Texas Online (Garneray Family & Champ d'Asile), where the Colony is characterized as "a motley mingling of French exiles, Spaniards, Poles, Mexicans, and Americans, with a sprinkling of former pirates...more occupied with military exercises and hunting than with cultivation of the soil."
Tyler, Prints of the American West, pp. 28-30 (illustrated): "The [colony] was never well organized, and its leaders suffered from the naive delusion that the few Spaniards in Texas would welcome them. Champ d'Asile ended ignominiously on July 23, 1818, when Lallemand ordered the dispirited soldiers to strike camp rather than stay and engage the Spanish force that he had heard was en route to expel them. Most of them returned to New Orleans. In the meantime, publication of Lallemand's manifesto in France inspired liberals to characterize the filibusters as heroes and to raise money for their aid. Envisioning heroic war veterans safe in the land of the noble savage, artists, poets, musicians, and publishers joined forces to produce illustrated sheet music, theatrical performances, books, pamphlets, and prints of various kinds. Famous for his Napoleonic military art, Horace Vernet [see Item 48 above] was one of several artists who produced drawings for the handsome lithographs and engravings depicting idealized scenes of the colonists at home in Spanish Texas. With no authentic published pictures of the interior of America to work fromespecially Spanish TexasVernet, Ambrose Louis Garneray, Ludwig Rullmann, and other French artists had to depend on their own resources to depict the settlements. Of course, none of the pictures bore any relationship to the real colony, but the combined efforts were much more sophisticated than the imaginative engravings being printed in America at that time and raised almost $15,000 for the colonists."
52. [MAP]. MELISH, John. United States of
America Compiled from the Latest & Best
Authorities. Philadelphia: M[athew] Carey & Son,
1820. Engraved map (by Tanner), original full and outline
coloring. 43 x 54.6 cm (16-7/8 x 21-1/2 inches). Scale: 1
inch = 120 miles. Neatly backed with acid-free tissue, a
few short tears and marginal chips mended (loss of one word
below neat line), centerfold split (but reinforced).
Early edition of a widely circulated and influential map, with one of the most forceful depictions of the U.S. Louisiana Purchase extending far beyond the Mississippi River. This map, with its depiction of Texas improved over Humboldt, is a reduced version of John Melish's important 1816 map. The map appeared in C. V. Lavoisne's A Complete Genealogical, Historical, Chronological and Geographical Atlas (1821). Because Melish's map was the most authoritative available at the time, the Spanish and U.S. plenipotentiaries used it as the definitive depiction during their negotiations over the boundary between Spain and the U.S. in 1819. Melish's widely circulated map encouraged popular support for the U.S. bargaining position of a boundary at the Rio Grande. John Quincy Adams settled for less in the Adam-Onís Treaty, but the mood created continued in the popular mind, resurfacing in the 1840s with the movement for the "reannexation" of Texas.
Taliaferro (208) notes another somewhat similar version of this map published in the General Atlas for Guthrie's Geography (Philadelphia, 1820). Taliaferro's comments about the Guthrie version apply as well to the present map: "The geography of the Texas coastline is somewhat confused: all important topographical features are present and with the correct relationship, but their forms are distorted. Galveztown, Louisiana, appears on the west bank of the 'Attoyaque River,' just above Sabine Lake." Day, Maps of Texas, p. 12.
Martin & Martin 26 (citing the 1816 larger format version): "The division of the lands in the Adams-Onís Treaty was facilitated by the use of a popular and widely disseminated map by John Melish, a Philadelphia publisher who had established the first enterprise in the United States exclusively devoted to the publication of geographies and maps. Recognizing that the demand for geographical information on the American West was limitless in the foreseeable future, Melish undertook to accumulate a vast amount of description, statistics, and maps, and in 1816 produced...his famous map. It proved so popular that it was reprinted at least twenty-two times by the end of 1822. For the Texas area, Melish relied heavily on the surveys conducted by William Derby, who had personally surveyed much of the Sabine River area....
"Melish's maps significantly improved the descriptions and depictions of the Texas interior, but perhaps its most lasting value to history was its official association with the Adams-Onís Treaty. Because Melish's 90th meridian, today the eastern boundary of the Texas Panhandle, was off by approximately ninety miles, controversy and court litigation concerning the correct boundary lasted well beyond Texas' annexation. Moreover, Melish's map graphically conveyed the controversy in the United States over the boundary of Texas and Louisiana. Of lasting value, too, was the widespread dissemination of new information concerning Texas geography only five years before Stephen F. Austin decided to honor his father's contract with the Mexican government to bring Anglo-American settlers to inhabit this rich new land." Streeter 1057n. Wheat, Transmississippi West 338 & p. 76.
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