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The literature relative to the Californias is extraordinarily voluminous and varied in nature and quality, and thus it has been subject to numerous bibliographies. Among the most famous of these is that compiled by the Zamorano Club of Los Angeles denoted The Zamorano 80. Nevertheless, none of these have singled out the printed works relating to the Californias in their historical context, that is from Cabo San Lucas northward, that were published while the region was still a part of the Spanish Empire. Although, as would be expected, most of these imprints are in Spanish, there are also titles in Latin, Italian, German, Dutch, French, and English, demonstrating the universal interest in the region during its early stages of discovery and settlement. This listing of eighty-two imprints, all of which are rare to excessively rare, chronologically demonstrates the increased production of Californiana, and is supplemented by citations to the most modern editions of the originals where such exist. To the compiler’s knowledge no single institution or collector holds all of the eighty-two titles in their first editions, and some of those listed are “only known copies,” thus it would be a great challenge to a dedicated bibliophile or curator to acquire all of these imprints.
——W. Michael Mathes
By W. Michael Mathes
As a result of its isolation from sailing routes and its resistance to Spanish
colonization until the final decades of the eighteenth century, California remained
a mysterious region, clouded in the mythology of Queen Calafia who governed
an immense island inhabited by women which ended at the entry to the Strait
of Anián. This great geographic and psychological distance from the population
centers of New Spain attracted foreign corsairs who voyaged in search of Anián
to gain passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic and used the bays of California
to await the passage of the Manila galleon. The corsairs also drew the curiosity
of European and American readers anxious to know the latest news of California,
the most remote corner of the globe.
The colonial period in New Spain underwent extraordinary changes in its historiography. Based upon medieval concepts, history written in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries comprised chronicles and documents printed for diffusion. The former were reports of facts and events, frequently without attention to chronology and intermingled with rumors, based upon contemporary or almost contemporary documents or testimony, and the latter were diaries, memoranda, letters, laws, and relations of merits and services, all primary sources and not necessarily written to serve as historical works. Although of lesser importance as historical sources, short imprints called edifying letters also appeared. These imprints promoted religious vocations by means of historical biography that praised the acts of its subject.
As a means of protecting the immense Spanish empire, the crown sought to maintain maximum secrecy relative to its geography and its relatively sparse population and defenses. For this reason, shortly after the beginning of colonization in the New World the crown began to censor books about the region. By Pragmatic Sanction of 8 July 1502,the Catholic Monarchs required a license from the Royal Council for the printing of books, and on 26 November 1554 a Royal Order of Carlos V decreed prior review, taxation, and licensing by the Council of the Indies for the printing and sale of books which dealt with overseas colonies. Later Royal Orders of 1560, 1641, 1647, and 1668 reiterated this requirement, and those of 26 July 1597, 13 March 1599, and 27 April 1682 required the review of books dealing with America by the Royal Council prior to granting a license for their printing.
These restrictions notwithstanding, the popularity of historical literature that narrated new discoveries produced an economically lucrative demand. Given that Spanish censorship had no impact outside of the country, it benefited printers of other European nations who published a large number of works, not only in the Castilian language but also in translations to Italian, French, German, and English. These foreign imprints that reported on the Spanish empire were complemented by descriptive relations of expeditions, generally furtive, to those territories by French, English, and Dutch explorers.
Although the censorship of information relative to the Americas evidently did not achieve the desired effect, the Recopilación de las leyes de los reinos de las Indias, published in 1681, incorporated all of the provisions previously decreed. Also in 1752 Felipe VI issued a Royal Order of 22 November requiring the review and granting of a license for any imprint, and three years later, through an order of 18 October 1755, the Royal Academy of History was commissioned to review and approve imprints dealing with America. The creation of the Royal Academy of History in itself reflected the changes in historiography that occurred during the Age of the Enlightenment. Following the application of scientific methodology to all of the academic disciplines, historians initiated production of studious works that compiled data from diverse sources of information to the end of reconstructing the past and discovering historical causality, generally related to the present. Also a result of the Enlightenment, the beginnings of journalism, reporting of contemporary events, also produced a new source of information of historiographic value. Historical literature relative to the Californias published during these three centuries demonstrates this historiographic evolution from the medieval to the modern.
Bibliographic registers: Henry R. Wagner, The Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794 (Albuquerque: The Quivira Society, 1937); John Alden and Dennis C. Landis, European Americana: A Chronological Guide to Works Printed in Europe Relating to the Americas 1493-1776 (New York: Readex Books, 1980-1997); José Toribio Medina, La Imprenta en México 1539-1821 (Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1965). Those imprints not listed in any of these three references are designated as “Unregistered.” The abbreviation “s.i.” means publisher or printer not stated.
(1) Francisco López de Gómara. La istoria de las Indias. Y conquista de México. Zaragoza: Agustín Millán, 1552. Wagner, 2. The secretary of Fernando Cortés relates the actions of his deceased chief, including the expeditions of Cortés in 1535, Francisco de Ulloa in 1539, and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. The work went through seven editions in Spanish prior to 1555 when, by Royal Order of 1554, books treating the Indies were prohibited. Nevertheless, six editions in Spanish were published in Antwerp during the sixteenth century, as were sixteen editions in Italian, twelve in French, and two in English during the same period.
(2) Giovanni Battista Ramusio. Terzo Volume delle Navigationi et Viaggi, 3 vols. Venice: Heredi di Lucantonio Giunti, 1556. European Americana 556/38. Italy was a center of printing and enjoyed freedoms that did not exist in Spain. In order to satisfy the extensive interest in new discoveries, publication of books and maps relative to the topic was promoted and Ramusio’s work was the first production of its kind in the field in the sixteenth century. The third volume contains the first printed relations of the expeditions of Francisco de Ulloa in 1539 and Hernando de Alarcón in 1540 through the Gulf of California to the mouth of the Colorado River.
(3) Richard Hakluyt. The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, made by Sea or over Land, to the most remote and farthest distant Quarters of the earth at any time within the compass of these 1500. yeeres.... London: George Bishop and Ralph Newverie, 1589. Wagner, 9; European Americana 589/31. The author, an Anglican minister, published his collection of voyages to promote English Protestant expansion. The work contains translations taken from Ramusio of the voyages of Ulloa and Alarcón, as well as The famous voyage of Sir Francis Drake into the South Sea, and there hence about the whole Globe of the Earth, begun in the yeere of our Lord, 1577 as an appendix bound between pages 643 and 644. It appeared in three English and two French editions in the seventeenth century.
(4) Antonio de Herrera. Historia General De Los Hechos De Los Castellanos En Las Islas I Terra Firme Del Mar Oceano..., 4 vols. Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1601. Wagner, 12. The work contains relations of the expeditions of Cortés, Alarcón, Rodríguez Cabrillo, and Drake. Prior to 1730 it appeared in three editions in Spanish, six in French, and one each in Latin, Flemish, and English. The author, chief royal chronicler of the Indies, had access to official documentation and original relations of the discoverers.
(5) Juan de Torquemada. 1A Parte De Los Veynte Y Vn libros Rituales y Monarchia Yndiana..., 3 vols. Sevilla: Matías Clavijo, 1615. Wagner, 18. This narrates the actions of the Franciscans in New Spain, written by the first chronicler of his order in the viceroyalty, a resident of it, and a friend of Discalced Carmelite Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, the second cosmographer of the expedition of Sebastián Vizcaíno of 1602-1603. The chronicle contains relations of the voyages of Cortés, Alarcón, Rodríguez Cabrillo, Vizcaíno of 1596, and almost verbatim, Ascensión’s relation of the voyage of 1602-1603 in which he promoted the concepts of California as an island and the existence of the Strait of Anián. It appeared in a second edition in 1723.
(6) Joris van Spielbergen. Ooste ende West-Indische Spieghel. Amsterdam: Jan Janssz, 1621. European Americana 621/117. This account relates the capture of the ship of Nicolás de Cardona during his return from the Gulf of California in 1615, at Santiago, Colima.
(7) Samuel Purchas. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas his Pilgrimes, 5 vols. London: Henry Fetherstone, 1624-1626. European Americana 625/173. The author, an Anglican minister, followed the policies of his predecessor, Richard Hakluyt, and continued the publication of relations of voyages of discovery. The work includes the relation of Thomas Cavendish’s voyage around the world, the capture of the galleon Santa Ana at Cabo San Lucas in 1587, and the demarcation carried out by Vizcaíno in 1602-1603. Following the concepts of Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, Purchas published the first formal map, drawn by Henry Briggs, showing California as an island.
(8) Tomás de Cardona. Señor. El Capitán Tomas de Cardona, por si, y en nombre de los demas participes en el assiento que con V. Magestad se hizo el año de 1612. Madrid: s.i., 1628. Wagner, 23. Cardona, Counselor of the College of San Telmo of Sevilla, describes the expedition of his nephew Nicolás de Cardona and his captain Juan de Iturbe to the Gulf of California in 1613-1615 and its failure.
(9) Francis Drake. The World Encompassed By Sir Francis Drake, Being his next voyage to that to Nombre de Dios formerly imprinted. London: Nicholas Bourne, 1628. Wagner, 31. Drake’s work relates the circumnavigation of the Golden Hinde and its sojourn in Alta California in 1579; it went through three editions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
(10) Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva-España. Madrid: Imprenta del Reyno, 1632. European Americana 632/27. A participant in the conquest with Cortés, Díaz recalled the first decades following the event, including the voyages of Cortés, Ulloa, Alarcón, and Rodríguez Cabrillo. A translation in English appeared in 1800.
(11) Nicolás de Cardona. Señor. El Capitán Nicolas de Cardona dize. Que sirue a V. M. desde el año de 1610 en la carrera de las Indias.... Madrid: s.i., 1634. Wagner, 38. Cardona relates his failed voyage of 1615 and his later attempts in 1619 and 1623 to open pearl fishing in the Gulf of California.
(12) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Señor. El Capitán Don Pedro Porter y Casanate, dize: Que el año de mil Y seiscientos y treinta y seis, por seruir a V. Magestad.... Madrid: s.i., 1638. Wagner, 39. Porter relates his merits and services to support his request for a pearl-fishing license in the Gulf of California.
(13) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación de los Servicios del Capitán Don Pedro Porter y Casanate. Madrid: s.i., 1640. Wagner, 39A. This is a second relation by Porter of his merits and services in support of his request for a license to explore the Gulf of California.
(14) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación De Los Servicios Del Almirante Don Pedro Porter Y Casanate. Madrid: s.i., 1642. Wagner, 42. This is a continuation of Porter’s same requests for pearl-fishing and governmental licenses relative to California.
(15) Andrés Pérez de Ribas. Historia De Los Trivmphos De Nvestra Santa Fee Entre Gentes Las Mas Barbaras, y fieras del nueuo Orbe. Madrid: Alonso de Paredes, 1645. Wagner, 43. This is the first chronicle of the Jesuit missions located in the northwest of New Spain. Its author was one of the first missionaries in Sinaloa, serving there from 1604 to 1620. Pérez de Ribas relates the voyages of Cardona and Iturbe and also of Porter y Casanate from Sinaloa to the Gulf of California.
(16) Juan Díez de la Calle. Memorial, Y Noticias Sacras, Y Reales Del Imperio De Las Indias Occidentales.... Madrid: s.i., 1646. Wagner, 44. The work relates the services of Porter y Casanate and his voyage to the Gulf of California in 1644.
(17) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación En Qve Se Ciñen Los Servicios Del Almirante Don Pedro Porter Casanate, Cavallero De La Orden de Santiago. Madrid, 1646. Wagner, 45. Porter relates the events occurring in his shipyard at Sentispac, Nayarit in 1643 and 1644, and includes the voyage of his captain to the Gulf of California in 1644.
(18) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación En Qve Se Ciñen Los Servicios Del Almirante Don Pedro Porter Casanate, Cavallero De La Orden De Santiago. Sirve a su Magestad en la Armada Real, y Carrera de Indias, de mas de veinte y quatro años a esta parte.... Madrid: s.i., 1651. Wagner, 48. A continuation of the previous imprint.
(19) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación Ajvstada De Los Servicios De El Almirante D. Pedro Porter Cassanate, Cauallero del Orden de Santiago, Gouernador, y Capitan General del Reyno de Chile.... Lima: s.i., 1655. Wagner, 49. A continuation of the previous imprint.
(20) Pedro Porter y Casanate. Relación Ajvstada De Los Servicios De El Almirante D. Pedro Porter Cassanate, Cauallero del Orden de Santiago, Del Consejo De Sv Magestad, Gouernador, y Capitan General del Reyno de Chile.... Lima: s.i., 1655. Wagner, 49a. Porter relates the failed attempts to explore the Gulf of California and colonize the peninsula between 1644 and 1650.
(21) Relación pvntval de la entrada qve han hecho los Españoles Almirante D. Isidro de Atondo, y Antillon en la Grande Isla de la California este año de 1683 a 31 de Março, sacada de carta de dicho Almirante de 20 y del Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino de la Compañia de Iesus de 22 de Abril, sus fechas en el puerto de la Paz. México: Viuda de Bernardo Calderón, 1683. Wagner, 58A. The work relates the failed attempts of Atondo and Kino in establishing a Jesuit mission at the bay of La Paz. The work appeared in a French translation.
(22) Isidro de Atondo y Antillón. Relación De Servicios, Del Capitan Ayudante de Teniente de Maestre de Campo General, D. Ysidro de Atondo, Y Antillon, Almirante del Reyno de la California, y Governador de la Armada Real de su conversion. México: s.i., 1686. Wagner, 58. Atondo relates his attempt at establishing a Jesuit mission in California at La Paz and San Bruno, and his exploration of the region with Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J., between 1679 and 1685.
(23) William Dampier. A New Voyage Round the World. London: James Knapton, 1697. Wagner, 66. The work tells of the activities of English pirate Charles Swan on the coast of Sinaloa and in the Gulf of California during the winter of 1685-1686 while unsuccessfully awaiting the Manila galleon. Editions in French, Dutch, and German appeared during the eighteenth century.
(24) Agustín de Vetancurt. Chronica De La Provincia Del Santo Evangelio De México. México: María de Benavides, Viuda de Juan de Ribera, 1697. Wagner, 68. The work relates the expedition of Atondo and Kino of 1683-1685.
(25) Juan María de Salvatierra. Copia De Qvatro Cartas De El Padre Juan Maria De Salvatierra de la Compañia de Jesvs.... México: Juan Joseph Guillena Carrascoso, 1698. Wagner, 69. Salvatierra describes the founding of the first permanent mission of the Californias, Nuestra Señora de Loreto, in October 1697, for its benefactors.
(26) Juan María de Salvatierra y Francisco María Piccolo. Copia de cartas De Californias Escritas por el P. Juan Maria de Salvatierra y Francisco Maria Picolo.... México: Herederos de la Viuda de Bernardo Calderón, 1699. Wagner, 71. Salvatierra relates the founding and first year of Mission Nuestra Señora de Loreto.
(27) Francisco María Piccolo. Informe Del Estado De La Nueva Christiandad de California, Qve Pidio Por Auto, La Real Audiencia De Guadalaxara.... México: s.i., 1702. Wagner, 74. Piccolo provides a detailed report of the first five years of the Jesuit missions in California and a request promoting support for their continuation by their legal representative. Translations in French, English, German, and Italian appeared in the eighteenth century, as did a second Spanish edition.
(28) Bartolomé de Fonte. “A Letter from Adm. Bartholomew de Fonte, the Admiral of New Spain and Peru, and now Prince of Chili; giving an Account of the most material Transactions in a journal of his from the Calo of Lima in Peru, on his Discoveries, to find out if there was any North West Passage from the Atlantick Ocean into the South and Tartarian Sea,” The Monthly Miscellany or Memoirs for the Curious, April and June, 1708, 123-26, 183-86. Unregistered. In this fictitious account by the apocryphal Admiral Bartolomé de Fonte, he sails from Callao to Hudson Bay along the California coast between April and September, 1640, thereby discovering a maritime passage to the Atlantic Ocean. English editions appeared in 1744-1748, 1748-1749, 1754, 1768, 1789, and 1793, and a Spanish edition appeared in the works of Venegas in 1757.
(29) Lettres Edifiantes Et Curieuses, écrites des Missions Étrangeres par quelques Missionaires de la Compagnie de Jesus, 35 vols. Paris: Chez Nicolas Le Clerc, 1703-1776. Wagner, 74a. Volume 5, 1705, contains the Informe of Piccolo and the map Passage Par Terre A La Californie by Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J., that reestablished the peninsular cartography of California.
(30) Edward Cooke. A Voyage To The South Sea, And Around the World, Perform’d in the Years 1708, 1709, 1710, and 1711, 2 vols. London: B. Lintot and R. Gosling, 1712. Wagner, 77. Cooke describes his sojourn at Cabo San Lucas in 1710 while he waited to attack the Manila galleon and provides details relative to the ethnography and natural history of the region. He published the first portrait of California Indians, two Pericúes paddling a raft, and the first drawings of fishes and birds of Cabo San Lucas.
(31) Woodes Rogers. A Cruising Voyage Round The World: First to the South-Seas, thence to the East-Indies, and homewards by the Cape of Good Hope. Begun in 1708 and finish’d in 1711. London: A. Bell and B. Lintot, 1712. Wagner, 78. Rogers, commander of the fleet in which Cooke sailed also describes his sojourn at Cabo San Lucas in 1710, but in less detail. The work went through three editions in English, two in French, and one in Dutch in the eighteenth century.
(32) Gazetas de México. México: Herederos de la Viuda de Miguel de Ribera Calderón, 1722; Joseph Bernardo de Hogal, Herederos de la Viuda de Miguel de Ribera Calderón, 1728-1742; Felipe de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1784-1809. Medina, 2675, 2979, 7526. This periodical was begun on 1 January 1722, was suspended at the end of the year until 1728, when it was again published until 1742, when it was again suspended until 1784, when publication continued from that year until 1809. In 1722 a report dated 8 September 1721 sent by Father Juan de Ugarte, S.J., was published relative to the founding of missions Nuestra Señora del Pilar de La Paz, Santiago, and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Huasinapí, as well as the building of the bilander El Triunfo de la Santa Cruz. Following 1784, news was published of the expansion to Alta California, with the sailings and returns of ships from the port of San Blas, Nayarit. In 1794 the founding of Mission San Pedro Mártir was reported.
(33) George Shelvocke. A Voyage Round The World By the Way of the Great South Sea, Perform’d in the Years 1719, 20, 21, 22, in the Speedwell of London.... London: J. Senex, 1726. Wagner, 88. Shelvocke describes his sojourn at Cabo San Lucas awaiting attack on the Manila galleon in 1721, following the lead of Rogers and Cooke. Plates of Pericú men and women showing aspects of their dress are included. The work appeared in a second English edition in 1757.
(34) Joseph Stocklein, editor. Allerhand so lehr-als geistreiche Brief, Scrifften und Reis-Beschreibungen, gelegenen Landern.... Der Neue Welt-Bott, 38 fascicules. Augsburg and Graz: s.i., 1726-1730. European Americana 726/16. The work contains letters of Kino and Salvatierra and the Informe of Piccolo, as well as the map Passage Par Terre... by Kino reestablishing the peninsularity of California.
(35) Joseph González Cabrera Bueno. Navegación Especvlativa, Y Practica, Con La Explicación De Algvnos Instrvmentos.... Manila: Convento de Nuestra Señora de los Angeles, 1734. Wagner, 97. The manual contains the sailing instructions for the coast of California prepared during the Vizcaíno voyage of 1602-1603 and thus this work was used by Captain Gaspar de Portolá and Fray Junípero Serra during their explorations in Alta California in 1769-1770.
(36) Juan Antonio de Oviedo. La Muger Fuerte, Sermon Panegyrico y Funeral.... México: s.i., 1738. Medina, 3541. This is a preached eulogy for Gertrudis de la Peña, benefactress of the Jesuit missions of California.
(37) Francisco Xavier Carranza. Llanto de las Piedras En la sentida muerte de la más generosa Peña. México: Francisco Xavier Sánchez, 1739. Medina, 3541. The second funerary eulogy for Gertrudis de la Peña.
(38) Johann Georg Gemeling. Disputatio Geographica De Vero Californiae Situ Et Conditione.... Marburg: Typis. Phil. Casimir. Müleri, 1739. Wagner, 108. This thesis relative to the question of the insularity or peninsularity of California discusses the expeditions of Ulloa, Rodríguez Cabrillo, and Atondo, and cites the Informe of Piccolo.
(39) Memorial Ajustado, Formado a Pedimento de Don Joseph Lorenz de Rada. México: s.i., 1740. Unregistered. This is a lawsuit brought by the nephew of Gertrudis de la Peña, successor to the marquisate of Las Torres de Rada, relative to the disposition of his aunt’s property in favor of the Jesuit missions of California.
(40) Manifiesto que saca a luz, el defensor de los bienes del Marqués de Villapuente, en representación de la Marquesa de las Torres. Puebla: Viuda de Miguel de Ortega, 1741. Medina, 3574. The document is a continuation of the preceding lawsuit.
(41) Jurídica demostración de la justicia que asiste a D. Joseph Lorenz de Rada. México: Imprenta Real, 1742. Medina, 3610. This is a continuation of the preceding lawsuit.
(42) Arthur Dobbs. An Account of the Countries adjoining to Hudson’s Bay, in the North-West part of America. London: Printed for J. Robinson, 1744. European Americana 744/80. Dobbs relates and supports the veracity of the fictitious voyage of Admiral Bartolomé de Fonte in 1640.
(43) Joseph Antonio Villaseñor y Sánchez. Theatro Americano, Descripción General De Los Reynos, Y Provincias De La Nueva-España, y Sus Jurisdicciones, 2 vols. México: Viuda de Joseph Bernardo de Hogal, 1746. Wagner, 118. In this work, Villaseñor published for the first time the relation of the land expedition from Mission San Ignacio Cadacaamán to the Colorado River by Fernando Consag, S.J., in 1746.
(44) Fernando Consag. Carta Del P. Fernando Consag de la Compañia de Jesus, Visitador de las Misiones de Californias, a los Padres Superiores de esta Provincia de Nueva España. México, 1746. Wagner, 120. Consag writes a biographical edifying letter relative to Father Antonio Tempis, S.J., missionary at Santiago from 1736 to 1746.
(45) Juan Antonio Balthasar. Carta Del P. Provincial Juan Antonio Balthassar, en que da noticia de la exemplar vida, religiosas virtudes, y apostólicos trabajos del fervoroso Missionero del Venerable P. Francisco Maria Picolo. México: s.i., 1752. Wagner, 124. Balthasar writes a biographical edifying letter relative to Piccolo, with short biographies of the martyrs Lorenzo Carranco, S.J., of Santiago and Nicolás Tamaral, S.J., of San José del Cabo, murdered at the opening of the Pericú revolt in 1734.
(46) Juan Joseph de Villavicencio. Vida, Y Virtudes De El Venerable, Y Apostólico Padre Juan de Ugarte De La Compañia de Jesus, Missionero de las Islas Californias, y uno de sus primeros Conquistadores. México: Colegio de San Ildefonso, 1752. Wagner, 126. Villavicencio presents a detailed biography of Ugarte, who was a representative of Juan María de Salvatierra, S.J., during the founding of Nuestra Señora de Loreto, missionary at San Francisco Javier Viggé-Biaundó in 1700, and successor to Salvatierra as superior of the missions from 1718 to 1730, with several edifying chapters designed to promote vocations for the missions.
(47) Cartas Edificantes, y Curiosas, Escritas de las Misiones Extrangeras por Algunos Missioneros de la Compañia de Jesus, 16 vols. Madrid: Viuda de Manuel Fernández, 1753-1757. Unregistered. This work contains the Informe of Piccolo.
(48) José Ortega & Juan Antonio Balthasar. Apostólicos Afanes De La Compañia De Jesus. Barcelona: Pablo Nadal, 1754. Wagner, 128. The authors chronicle the missions of Sinaloa, Nayarit, and Sonora. The work contains relations of Kino’s explorations to the Colorado River, and publishes, for the first time, the diary of the expedition of Consag to the Colorado River in 1751.
(49) Miguel Venegas. El Apostol Mariano Representado En La Vida Del V. P. Juan María De Salvatierra, De La Compañia De Jesus.... México: Doña María de Ribera, Impresora del Nuevo Rezado, 1754. Wagner, 130. Venegas presents a detailed biography of Salvatierra, founder of the Jesuits missions of California, with edifying chapters to promote vocations. The biography, written by the protohistorian of the Californias, was edited by a leading intellectual of New Spain, Juan Antonio de Oviedo, S.J.
(50) Miguel Venegas. Noticia De La California, Y De Su Conquista Temporal, Y Espiritual Hasta El Tiempo Presente. 3 vols. Madrid: Viuda de Manuel Fernández, 1757. Wagner, 132. The author, Miguel Venegas, S.J., employed modern methodology in the preparation of this first history of the Californias, consulting published and manuscript sources as well as questionnaires sent to missionaries. Venegas’s manuscript was revised and expanded by Andrés Marcos Burriel, S.J., a leading Spanish academician, who included four maps and important appendices with a refutation of the concept of the Strait of Anián and relations of the expeditions of Consag. The work covers aspects of natural history and ethnology of the peninsula, the Vizcaíno expeditions, and the founding and development of the Jesuit missions in exceptional detail. It appeared, without the Burriel indices, in English, French, German, and Dutch editions prior to 1770.
(51) Theodore Swayne Drage. The Great Probability of A North West Passage, Deduced from Observations on the Letter of Admiral de Fonte. London: Thomas Jefferys, 1758. Unregistered. Drage presents detailed arguments supporting the veracity of the fictitious letter of Admiral Bartolomé de Fonte regarding his supposed voyage from Callao to Hudson Bay in 1640.
(52) Miguel Quijano. Defensa jurídica de las Missiones de California como herederas de Doña Gertrudis de la Peña.... México: Colegio de San Ildefonso, 1759. Wagner, 136. This work contains printed arguments countering the demands initiated in 1740 by Joseph Lorenz de Rada relative to the disposition of the property of his aunt, Gertrudis de la Peña, on behalf of the Jesuit missions.
(53) José Torrubia. I Moscoviti Nella California O Sia Dimostrazione Della Verita’ Del Passo All’ America Settentrionale Nuovamente scoperto dai Russi.... Rome: Generoso Salomoni, 1759. Wagner, 137. The author, representative and chronicler of the Franciscan provinces of Spain in Rome, relates the voyages in search of the Strait of Anián or Northwest Passage and presents arguments against its existence. He treats recent discoveries of the Russians in Bering Straits, and through this he influenced the preoccupation in Spain relative to the Russian entry to the northwest coast of America. It appeared in a second edition in 1760.
(54) Francisco Zevallos. Carta Del Padre Provincial Francisco Zevallos Sobre La Apostólica Vida, Y Virtudes Del P. Fernando Konsag, Insigne Missionero De La California. México: Colegio de San Ildefonso, 1764. Wagner, 145. This short, biographical edifying letter relates to the actions of Consag in the Californias.
(55) Miguel Costansó. Diario Historico De Los Viages De Mar, Y Tierra Hechos Al Norte De La California De Orden Del Excelentissimo Señor Marques De Croix.... México: s.i., 1770. Wagner, 149. This work is the first relation of the entry to Alta California by Portolá and Serra, including their exploration from San Diego to Monterey and the discovery of the Estero de San Francisco. The author was the royal engineer of the expedition. An English translation appeared in 1790.
(56) Estracto De Noticias del Puerto de Monterrey.... México: s.i., 1770. Wagner, 150. This work briefly relates the founding of the presidio of Monterey by Portolá and the founding of Mission San Carlos Borromeo by Serra.
(57) Francisco Antonio Lorenzana. Historia De Nueva-España, Escrita Por Su Esclarecido Conquistador Hernan Cortes.... México: Joseph Antonio de Hogal, 1770. Wagner, 152. This edition of the Cortés letters of relation and other documents by the archbishop of México describes the voyages of Cortés and Ulloa. A map of the peninsula of California reputedly drawn by Domingo del Castillo in 1541 is included.
(58) Plan De Una Compañia de Accionistas para fomentar con actividad el beneficio de las ricas Minas de Sonora y Cinaloa, y restablecer la Pesquería de Perlas en el Golfo de Californias. México: s.i., 1771. Wagner, 156. This pamphlet proposes the reopening and commercialization of pearl fishing through the sale of stock shares for 500 pesos.
(59) Johann Jacob Baegert. Nachrichten von der Amerikanischen Halbinsel Californien.... Mannheim: Churfürstl. Hof- und Academie-Buchdruckerey, 1772. Wagner, 157. The ex-missionary of San Luis Gonzaga in exile relates his sojourn in California with extensive ethnographic and linguistic details. The volume contains plates of a Guaycura man and woman and a map that follows that of Consag published by Venegas-Burriel. This work appeared in a corrected edition in 1773.
(60) Christoph Gottlieb von Murr. Christoph Gottlieb von Murr’s Journal zur Kunstgeschichte und zur allegemeiner Litteratur, 17 vols. Nuremburg: Johann Eberhard Zeh, 1775-1799. Unregistered. This work contains data relative to Indian languages of California taken from some missionaries, including Benno Ducrue, S.J., whose relation of the Jesuit expulsion from California in Latin also appears in this series.
(61) Jean Chappe d’Auteroche. Voyage En Californie Pour L’Observation Du Passage De Venus Sur Le Disque Du Soleil, Le 3 Juin 1769.... París: Chez Charles-Antoine Jombert, 1772. Wagner, 158. The author, a member of the French academy, contracted malaria at San José del Cabo and died there. His observations to determine the distance of the sun from Earth were continued by Joaquín Velázquez de León, noted astronomer from New Spain. The work appeared in an English edition in 1778.
(62) Francisco Antonio Mourelle. Journal Of A Voyage In 1775. To explore the coast of America, Northward of California.... London: s.i., 1780. Wagner, 164. An English translation of the author’s diary of the voyage of the Sonora from San Blas to the northwest coast of America, a voyage that initiated Spanish occupation of the region.
(63) Reglamento Para El Gobierno De La Provincia De Californias. Aprobado por S. M. en Real Orden de 24. de Octubre de 1781. México: Felipe de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1784. Wagner, 166. This volume contains the first printed laws specifically relating to the Californias.
(64) Francisco Palóu. Relación Historica De La Vida Y Apostólicas Tareas Del Venerable Padre Fray Junípero Serra, Y de las Misiones que fundó en la California Septentrional, y nuevos establecimientos de Monterey. México: Felipe de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1787. Wagner, 168. Palóu was successor to Serra as superior of the Franciscan missions, first in Baja California and subsequently in Alta California. In this work, Serra’s closest friend presents the first biography of Serra, the initiator of colonization north of Velicatá, along with the history of the region until his death in 1784. The work contains a portrait of Serra and a map of both Californias. Two distinct printings appeared in the same year, 1787.
(65) El Rey. Por quanto por Don Fray Antonio de los Reyes, Obispo de Sonora, y Don Felipe de Neve...lo ocurrido acerca de la erección de la Custodia de San Gabriel, y arreglo de las Misiones de Californias.... México: s.i., 1787. Wagner, 167A. This is a Royal Order for annual letters reporting the status of the presidios and missions of the Californias.
(66) Francisco Javier Clavijero. Storia Della California, 2 vols. Venice: Modesto Fenzo, 1789. Wagner, 172. The second history of the Californias, compiled from published sources and the testimony of ex-missionaries by the brilliant Jesuit from Veracruz, Clavijero, who was in exile in Bologna; it contains a map based upon that of Consag published by Venegas.
(67) Juan Domingo Arricivita. Crónica Seráfica Y Apostólica Del Colegio De Propaganda Fide De La Santa Cruz De Querétaro En La Nueva España. México: Felipe de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1792. Wagner, 174. The work relates the expeditions of Fray Francisco Tomás Hermenegildo Garcés to the Colorado River in 1776 and the founding and destruction of the missions by the Yumans on the Colorado River in 1781.
(68) Luis Sales. Noticias De La Provincia De Californias En Tres Cartas De Un Sacerdote Religioso Hijo Del Real Convento De Predicadores De Valencia A Un Amigo Suyo. Valencia: Hermanos de Orga, 1794. Wagner, 177. This is the only published Dominican account, appearing in the form of two letters that relate the founding of missions by the Dominican Order, the division of Antigua and Nueva California, and maritime expansion to the northwest coast up to 1789.
(69) Jean Francois de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse. Voyage de La Perouse autour du monde, publie conformement au decret du 22 avril 1797, et redige par M. L. A. Milet-Mureau. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, 1797. 4 vols., atlas. Unregistered. The author relates the first visit by a foreign expedition to Alta California during his scientific voyage around the world, at Monterey in 1786. The work contains extensive details relative to geography, natural history, the mission system, and Alta California society. A second French edition appeared in 1798; English editions in 1798, 1799, 1801, and 1807; a German edition in 1799-1800; and a Dutch edition in 1801-1804.
(70) George Vancouver. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World; In which the Coast of North-West America has been carefully examined and accurately surveyed...Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795, in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham under the command of Captain George Vancouver, 3 vols., atlas. London: G. G. and J. Robinson, 1798. Unregistered. English commissioner George Vancouver relates his exploration and visits in Alta California between 1792 and 1794. The work contains the most important geographic and cartographic details relative to the region made to that date. A German edition in two volumes appeared in 1799-1800, and French editions of 1799 and 1801 were published in three volumes and atlas, as was a second English edition in 1801.
(71) José Espinosa y Tello. Relación del Viage hecho por las goletas Sutil y Mexicana en el año de 1792 para reconocer el estrecho de Fuca, 2 vols. Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1802. Unregistered. This work contains an historical overview of maritime exploration of the Pacific coast of the Californias by Martín Fernández de Navarrete as well as geographic, cartographic, ethnographic, and natural history descriptions of the region made by the last Spanish scientific expedition to the area under the command of Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés.
(72) James Burney. A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, 5 vols. London: Luke Hansard, 1803-1817. Unregistered. This work is a major compilation of diaries and reports of Spanish, English, Dutch, and French voyages to all regions of the Pacific Ocean.
(73) William Robert Broughton. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean. London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1804. Unregistered. This is the diary of the Vancouver expedition of 1792 by the captain of the Chatham. Published in a German edition, 1805 and in a French edition, 1807.
(74) Christoph Gottleib von Murr. Nachricten von verschiedenen Ländern des Spanishcen Amerika, 2 vols. Halle: Joh. Christian Hendel, 1809-1811. Unregistered. This work publishes Jesuit letters relative to the missions, including the relation of Ducrue and the diary of the expedition of Wenceslaus Linck, S.J., from Santa Gertrudis northward in 1756.
(75) Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern. Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl seiner Kaiserl. Majestät Alexander des Ersten, auf den Schiffen Nadesha und Newa, 3 vols. Berlin: Hude und Spener, 1811-1812. Unregistered. Kruzenshtern relates the Russian scientific circumnavigation under his command and cartographic details of the coast of Alaska. An English edition appeared in 1813, an Italian edition in 1818, and a French edition in 1821.
(76) Iurii Fedorovich Lisianskii. Puteshestvie vokrug svieta v 1803. 4. 5. i 1806 godakh, po povelieniu Ego Imperatorskago Velichestva Aleksandra Pervago, na korablie Nevie, 2 vols. St. Petersburg: Tip. F. Drekhslera, 1812. Unregistered. This is the diary of the captain of Neva of the Kruzenshtern circumnavigation. An English edition was published in 1814.
(77) Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff. Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803 bis 1807, 2 vols. Frankfurt: Friederich Wilmans, 1812. Unregistered. Langsdorff, the naturalist of the Alaska expedition, recounts the visit of the Russian imperial chamberlain and director of the Russian-American Company, Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov, to the presidio of San Francisco and his meeting with Commandant José Argüello. This visit resulted in the eventual founding of Fort Ross by the Russians. English editions appeared in 1813-1814 and 1817.
(78) Agustín Pomposo Fernández de San Salvador. Los Jesuitas quitados y resituidos al mundo. Historia de la Antigua California. México: Mariano Ontiveros, 1816. Medina, 11174. After presenting his arguments in favor of the reestablishment of the Society of Jesus in New Spain, the famous jurist relates the history of the missions of Baja California in the form of a letter from “Nicolás” to “Lorenzo,” perhaps in remembrance of Tamaral and Carranco, protomartyrs of the Californias.
(79) John Barrow. A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions: Undertaken chiefly for the purpose of discovering a north-east, north-west, or polar passage between the Atlantic and Pacific. London: John Murray, 1818. Unregistered. Barrow’s history contains accounts of the apocryphal voyages of Juan de Fuca and Bartolomé de Fonte along the Pacific coast in search of a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
(80) Diego Miguel Bringas de Manzaneda y Encinas. Sermon Que En Las Solemnes Honras Celebradas En Obsequio De Los VV. PP. Predicadores Apostólicos Fr. Francisco Tomas Hermenegildo Garcés: Fr. Juan Marcelo Diaz: Fr. José Matías Moreno: Fr. Juan Antonio Barreneche: Misioneros Del Colegio de Propaganda fide de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro.... Madrid: Fermín Villalpando, 1819. Wagner, 174a. This sermon, preached on the occasion of the reburial of the missionaries martyred on the Colorado River in 1794, relates the founding of the missions to the Yumans in 1781 with detailed biographies of the martyrs.
(81) Gabriel Franchere. Relation d’un voyage a la côte du Nord-oest de l’Amerique Septentrionale dans les anees 1810, 11, 12, 13, et 14. Montreal: Imprimerie de C. B. Pasteur, 1820. Unregistered. Franchere describes the French exploration of the Pacific coast to determine the utility of the fur trade.
(82) Otto von Kotzebue. Entdeckungs-Reise in die Sud-See und nach der Berings-Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt: Unternommen in der Jahren 1815, 1816, 1817 und 1818, 3 vols. Weimar: Gebruder Hoffman, 1821. Unregistered. Kotzebue writes of the Russian scientific circumnavigation under his command and of the visit of Rurik to California in 1816. His account includes details relative to natural history and ethnography. An English edition was published in 1821.
Numbers in parentheses correspond with those of the main entry.
(1) Historia de la Conquista de México. México: Editorial Porrúa, 1997. Col. Sepan Cuantos.
(2) Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1966.
(3) Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1903-1905. 12 vols.
(4) Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1934-1956. 17 vols.
(5) Miguel León-Portilla, ed. México: UNAM, 1975-1979. 7 vols.
(6) Piratas en las Costas de Nueva Galicia. W. Michael Mathes, ed. Guadalajara: Librería Font, 1976.
(7) Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1905. 20 vols.
(8) Californiana II: Documentos para la historia de la explotación comercial de California: 1611-1679. W. Michael Mathes, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1970. 2 vols.
(9) Ann Arbor: Readex, 1966.
(10) México: Editorial Porrúa, 1997. Col. Sepan Cuantos.
(11) Californiana II....
(12) Californiana II....
(13) Californiana II....
(14) Californiana II....
(15) México: Siglo XXI, 1992.
(17) Californiana II....
(18) Californiana II....
(19) Californiana II....
(20) Californiana II....
(21) Kino Escribe a la Duquesa. Ernest J. Burrus, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1964.
(22) Californiana III: Documentos para la historia de la transformación colonizadora de California: 1679-1686. W. Michael Mathes, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1964.
(23) New York: Dover Publications, 1968.
(24) México: Editorial Porrúa, 1971.
(25) Loreto Capital de las Californias. Miguel León-Portilla, ed. México: Fonatur, 1997.
(26) La Fundación de la California Jesuítica. La Paz: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, 1997.
(27) Ernest J. Burrus, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1962.
(28) Voyages in Search of a Northwest Passage, vol. 2. William Barr; Glyndwr Williams, eds. London: Hakluyt Society, 1992.
(30) Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1969.
(31) Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1971.
(32) W. Michael Mathes. “Noticias de las Californias: Reportaje de la Gazeta de México 1722-1809,” Calafia 4:7 (December 1982).
(33) Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1971.
(35) W. Michael Mathes, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1970.
(36) - (41) None.
(42) New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967.
(43) México: Editora Nacional, 1952. 2 vols.
(44) - (46) Jesuítica Californiana 1681-1764. W. Michael Mathes, ed. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1998.
(48) México: Editorial Layac, 1944.
(49) - (50) Obras Californianas del Padre Miguel Venegas, S.J. W. Michael Mathes, ed. La Paz: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, 1979. 5 vols.
(51) W. Michael Mathes, ed. Fairfield: Ye Galleon Press, 1999.
(53) W. Michael Mathes, ed. Fairfield: Ye Galleon Press, 1996.
(54) Jesuítica Californiana....
(55) Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1960.
(56) Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1962.
(57) México: Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, 1980.
(59) Paul Kirchoff, ed. La Paz: Gobierno del Estado de Baja California Sur, 1989.
(60) Ernest J. Burrus, ed. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute, 1967.
(61) London: s.i., 1968.
(63) San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1929.
(64) Miguel León-Portilla, ed. México: Editorial Porrúa, 1970. Col. Sepan Cuantos.
(66) Miguel León-Portilla, ed. México: Editorial Porrúa, 1970. Col. Sepan Cuantos.
(67) Apostolic Chronicle of Juan Domingo Arricivita: The Franciscan Mission Frontier in the Eighteenth Century in Arizona, Texas, and the Californias. George P. Hammond, Agapito Rey, Vivian C. Fisher, and W. Michael Mathes, eds. 2 vols. Berkeley: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1996.
(68) Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1960.
(69) Le Voyage de Laperouse—1785-1788. John Dunmore, ed. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1985; The Journal of Jean Francoise de Galaup de la Perouse, 1785-1788. John Dunmore, ed. London: Hakluyt Society, 1994-1995. 2 vols.
(70) A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific and Round the World. New York: Da Capo Press, 1968. 3 vols., atlas; A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific and Round the World, 1791-1795. W. Kaye Lamb, ed. London: Hakluyt Society, 1984. 4 vols. London: John Stockdale, 1801. 6 vols.
(71) Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1958.
(72) New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.
(73) New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.
(74) Ernest J. Burrus, ed. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute, 1967.
(75) Voyage Round the World, in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, & 1806, by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, on Board the Ships Nadesha and Neva. New York: Da Capo Press, 1968.
(76) Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806. New York: Da Capo Press, 1968.
(77) Eine Reise um die Welt. Leipzig: VEB Bibliographisches Institut, 1952; Voyages and Travels in various parts of the World during the years 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, and 1807. New York: Da Capo Press, 1965. 2 vols.
(79) New York: Barnes & Noble, 1971.
(80) Diario del Capitán Comandante Fernando de Rivera y Moncada. Ernest J. Burrus, ed. 2 vols. Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1967.
(81) A Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America. Milo Milton Quaife, ed. New York: Citadel Press, 1968.
(82) A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering’s Straits. New York: Da Capo Press, 1967. 2 vols.
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