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Auction 14: Americana

Lots 42-45: Pocket Maps & Guides, Cartography of Mexico

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Pocket Map & Early Guide to California & Oregon
One of the First Maps to Show Texas as a State

42. [MAP & GUIDE: TEXAS, OREGON, CALIFORNIA & THE WEST]. MITCHELL, S[amuel] Augustus. A New Map of Texas, Oregon and California with the Regions Adjoining. Compiled from the Most Recent Authorities. Philadelphia Published by S. Augustus Mitchell N.E. Corner of Market & Seventh Streets. [Lower left above border]: Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1845 by H. N. Burroughs in the Clerks Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Lithographed map with original outline coloring and shading (rose, pink, yellow, olive green, and tan), ornate border (pink and green). 56.7 x 52.2 cm (22-1/4 x 20-1/2 inches). [Lower left]: Explanation... [and] Emigrant Route from Missouri to Oregon.... [With guide book]: Accompaniment to Mitchell’s New Map of Texas, Oregon, and California, with the Regions Adjoining. Philadelphia: S. Augustus Mitchell, N. E. Cor. Market and Seventh Sts., 1846. 46 pp. Folded into pocket covers: 16mo, original purple embossed roan, gilt-lettered on upper cover: TEXAS, OREGON AND CALIFORNIA. Intermittent slight foxing to guide. A few minor fox marks to map, which has two short breaks at folds. Superb condition, as issued. In 1917, Dr. Rosenbach described this map and guide as “very rare.”

     First printing of a landmark map and guide for the American West. This emigrant guide is among the earliest guides to California and Oregon. Mitchell reworked his guide and map in 1849 to emphasize the California gold region and how to get there (see Kurutz, The California Gold Rush 447a). The map made its appearance in various forms and formats, including use as an inset in a large wall map of the United States, but this is the preferred issue. Baughman, Kansas in Maps, p. 35: “A deservedly popular map of the West.” Braislin 1268. Cohen, Mapping the West, pp. 134-135 (discussing how Brigham Young obtained copies of the map when preparing for the Mormon western migration in 1846): “The most popular [map] of the West published up to that time, and in many ways it defined the American public’s view of the country’s changing geography.... Published on the eve of the Mexican War and one of the first to show Texas as a state.... The boundaries of the new state are extravagantly conceived on the map, with claimed land reaching the upper Rio Grande as far west as Santa Fe.” Cowan II, p. 433. Graff 2841. Holliday 787 (the Littell copy). Howes M685. Littell 742. Martin & Martin 36. Plains & Rockies IV:122b. Sabin 49714. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, p. 276: “A composite map, it judiciously incorporated the recent work of Nicollet, Wilkes, Frémont, and Emory. Both the Oregon Trail and the ‘Caravan route to Santa Fe’ are included.” Siebert Sale 855 (fetching $20,700 in 1999, “a sparkling copy”–every bit as good as the present one, we might add). Smith 2579. Streeter Sale 2711. Wheat, Maps of the Gold Region 29; Mapping the Transmississippi West 520 & III, p. 35: “This map represents a great step forward [utilizing] the recent explorations that had bounded and determined the nature of the Great Basin.”
    Of course, the map is dazzling and has been discussed at length in the cartographical literature. However, the text of the lengthy guide is not without interest for what it reveals in the discussions of Texas (“the raising of live stock is the principal and favourite occupation of the Texans”), Oregon (“the United States have an indubitable claim to the whole region of Oregon, from N. lat. 42° to 54° 40’”), Indian Territory, Iowa, and Missouri Territory. On the Mexican territory of California, Mitchell’s guide comments: “This part of Mexico was declared independent in 1845. It has of late attracted much attention in the United States; a number of American citizens are already settled in it, and many others are preparing to emigrate thither.” Commentary on native Californianos includes: “Descended from the old Spaniards, they are unfortunately found to have all their vices without a proper share of their virtues. They are exceedingly fond of gambling, which is equally in favour with the male and the female portion of the community. Their games consist in cards, dice, &c. Their amusements are cock-fighting, bull and bear-baiting, and dancing; these are the predominant occupations of their lives, always accompanied with excessive drinking. The female portion of the community are ignorant, degraded, and the slaves of their husbands.” When one group of human beings gets in the way of another group who wish to dominate through territorial expansion, it is not unusual that the resident peoples in question will soon be demoted to some subclass of humanity.

43. [MAP & GUIDE: UNITED STATES]. Phelps’s National Map of the United States, a Travellers Guide. Embracing the Principal Rail Roads, Canals, Steam Boat & Stage Routes, throughout the Union. New York. Published by Ensigns & Thayer, 50 Ann Street, 1849. Drawn & Engraved by J. M. Atwood, New York. Portraits, & St. Arms, Engd by, Wm. D. Smith. Entered According to the Act of Congress in the Year 1845 by H. Phelps. In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the Southern District of N. York. Engraved map on bank note paper, measuring 51.2 x 64.8 cm (20-1/8 x 25-1/2 inches), original outline coloring (yellow, rose, pink, blue, orange, green) and border composed of 48 vignettes (portraits of presidents, patriots, other luminaries, state seals including Texas, national seal and motto, and scenes–including signing the Declaration of Independence); inset maps of South Florida, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York, Boston, Chicago. [With guide book]: Phelps’s Travellers’ Guide through the United States; Containing upwards of Seven Hundred Rail-Road, Canal, and Stage and Steam-Boat Routes Accompanied with a New Map of the United States. New York: Published by Ensigns & Thayer, 1849. [2] 70 pp. Map and guide within original covers: 16mo (14.2 x 8.7 cm; 5-5/8 x 3-3/8 inches), original black morocco elaborately gilt stamped on upper cover with steamboat and train, design repeated in blind on lower cover, marbled endpapers, a.e.g.

Map with very light browning at folds and on map panel affixed to covers, otherwise the map is superb, with fresh, bright coloring. Text with light uniform foxing and a few spots, but generally very fine, with contemporary ink ownership inscription of L. E. Powers on front free endpaper.
    This popular guide to travel in the U.S. was published and reissued numerous times, originally as Phelps & Ensigns’s Traveller’s Guide in 1838. See Buck (347), Graff (1253 & 3269), Howes (E165 & P291), etc. Phelps’s Guide was first published under the present title in 1847. The guide contains tables of routes and distances for all of the states east of the Mississippi River, as well as Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Phelps was one of the more enthusiastic boosters of Western travel and emigration. This guide gives details on travel to Oregon, the Red River, and Texas.

The map shows the eastern half of the United States and reaches into Texas as far west as Huntsville, Houston, and Austin. Map printed on strong but lightweight bank note paper conveniently folding into small-format covers were extensively used by travelers in the United States beginning in the early nineteenth century with the introduction of bank note paper. The rapid increase in modes of transportation led to accompanying guides setting out the connecting links of roads, railroads, and steamboats, along with schedules, distances, and other historical and useful travel information. Because of their extensive use, pocket travel maps are rare survivals.

44. [MAP & GUIDE: UNITED STATES]. WEBSTER, J. Map of the United States Published by J. Webster New-York. 1836. Entered according to Act of Congress, on the 20th. of March 1834: by James Webster, in the Office of the Clerk of the Southern District of New York. Engraved by Wm. Chapin. Engraved map on bank note paper, measuring 40.5 x 49.8 cm (15-7/8 x 19-5/8 inches), original outline coloring (yellow, rose, blue), piano-key border; at lower left is a large portrait of George Washington with oval decorative border; at the lower center is Population of the United States [1800-1830].... With foldout letterpress broadside: Travellers Guide and Statistical View of the United States (text within ornamental typographical border, 45.3 x 57 cm; 17-3/4 x 22-3/8 inches). Map and guide folded into original covers: 16mo (13.2 x 8.7 cm; 5-1/8 x 3-3/8 inches) original black leather over navy blue stiff paper boards with gilt lettering on upper cover: WEBSTER’S TRAVELLER’S GUIDE; and on lower cover: COMPLETE GUIDE THROUGH THE UNITED STATES. The map is very fine and bright with archival reinforcement using Japanese tissue at folds. Folds of letterpress guide reinforced (mostly with heatset tissue). Fragile boards lightly worn (primarily at edges) and gilt lettering dull.

    American Imprints 42373. Eberstadt 138:724 (1834 edition). Sabin 102324. Another travel pocket map of the type described in the preceding entry. The makers of such pocket maps extensively borrowed, stole, traded, and legitimately purchased from one another the information found in such guides. Webster’s guide is no exception, and Mitchell and Phelps are among the conjectured sources for the present work. What interests us most about this map is its exuberantly engraved and charmingly executed portrait of George Washington done with a variety of engraving techniques (including stipple and line engraving) and the barely discernable engraved statement on the map: Engraved by Wm Chapin. The Philadelphia artist-engraver was William Chapin (1801-1888), who worked in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York (see Groce & Wallace, p. 118 and Stauffer, Fielding & Gage, American Engravers upon Copper and Steel I, pp. 43-44). Fielding (p. 145) states: “About 1827, Mr. Chapin turned his attention to projecting and engraving maps, and in time he established an extensive map business in New York. Chapin’s large map of the United States is said to be the first map engraved upon steel in this country” (see American Imprints 54885 & Phillips, America, p. 892).

    This scarce map and guide shows the young Republic west to the Rocky Mountains (designated as Missouri Territory) and locates Long’s Peak. The territories of tribes are located, such as Comanche, Black Foot, Sioux, Iowa, and Cheyenne. Most of present-day Texas is shown, although still designated as part of Mexico (the only located town is Nacogdoches). Rivers are delineated, and Galveston and Matagorda Bays, Aransas Inlet Bay, and Padre Island are pinpointed.

45. [MAP REFERENCE]. RUIZ NAUFAL, V. M. El territorio mexicano... [with] Planos y mapas.... Mexico: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 1982. Text: xxxviii, 447 [4] + xvi, 787 [3] pp., hundreds of illustrations and maps, many in color and/or folding. Map portfolio: 36 colored maps, each with descriptive text. 3 vols., large folio, original brown cloth, beige cloth backstrips. Light to moderate outer wear,
but overall a fine set.
    First edition. A lavish exposition of the cartography of Mexico from pre-Cortesian maps to the present. The first volume is devoted to maps of Mexico in general, and the second volume devotes a chapter to each Mexican state, including states formerly part of Mexico but now in the United States. Reproduced are many previously unpublished manuscript maps that relate to America in general, the Southwestern U.S., and the Mexican-American War. This set has been out of print for quite some time and is difficult to locate as it was produced as a gift set to be given away by the Mexican government.

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