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Indians Taxed & Indians Not Taxed

“This beautifully illustrated volume enumerates the Indian population in every imaginable category [and] contains a wealth of the sort of statistical information that only the government can produce” (McCracken)

213. UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR. CENSUS OFFICE. Report on Indians Taxed and Indians Not Taxed in the United States (except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1894. House of Representatives, Miscellaneous Document, No. 340, Part 15. vii, [1 blank], 683 [1 blank] pp., 204 plates: 20 chromolithographs by Julian Scott, William Gilbert Gaul, Peter Moran, Henry Rankin Poore, and Walter Shirlaw, some with gesso highlights, 2 folded ("The Race" and "Omaha Dance"), 184 leaves of black and white photographic plates (including work by Muybridge, Cantwell, and W. H. Jackson); plus 25 lithograph maps (some colored,  13 folded), including 3 large maps:  (1) Map Showing Indian Reservations within the Limits of the United States Compiled under the Direction of T. J. Morgan, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, neat line to neat line: 53.5 x 84.5 cm; (2)  Map of Linguistic Stocks of American Indians Chiefly within the Present Limits of the United States from Annual Report of Bureau of Ethnology Vol. 7. By J. W. Powell; neat line to neat line: 51.5 x 44.3 cm; (3)  Map of Indian Territory and Oklahoma 1890 [center below neat line] Julius Bien & Co Lith. N.Y.; neat line to neat line: 56.5 x 75 cm.  4to, original black cloth. The massive binding is worn (small splits at top joints, corners bumped) and the heavy text is somewhat loose (front hinge starting, a few signatures loose, one detached), otherwise fine, the plates and maps very fine, tissue guards present.  Later ink ownership signature on title.  This book is difficult to locate in acceptable condition, and this is one of the better copies we have seen.

     First edition. Graff 4396. Howes D418. McCracken, 101, p. 47: “Prior to 1850 Indians were not included in the United States Census. By 1890 the census included Indians living both on and off of the reservations, as well as those who had ‘abandoned their tribal relations and became citizens.’ This beautifully illustrated volume enumerates the Indian population in every imaginable category [and] contains a wealth of the sort of statistical information that only the government can produce.” Subjects include policy and administration of Native American affairs, population, educational, land, and vital and social statistics, tables for each state and territory, military engagements against Native Americans and their cost, depredations claims, liabilities of the U.S. to Native Americans, legal status of Native Americans, etc.

     This massive state-by-state survey includes detailed information and statistics on stock raising among Native American tribes. One of Julian Scott’s chromolithographs entitled “Issue Day” is a lively rendition of Native Americans chasing cattle.  Some of the photographs document Native American stock raising, such as W. R. Cross’ “South Dakota. Issuing Beef Cattle to the Sioux at Rosebud Agency.”

     This tome is essential for Native American studies and genealogy, because, according to the Library of Congress: “Unfortunately, a 1921 fire in the Department of Commerce building resulted in the destruction of all but a few fragments of the 1890 census returns. A 683-page Bureau of the Census report, however, contains detailed descriptions of Indian tribes on reservations, arranged by state. Occasionally, there are specific references to individual Indians.  If you know the reservation where an individual lived in the late 1800s, check the 1890 report for possible mention of the person being sought, particularly if he or she were of some prominence.  The destruction of the 1890 census is a double blow for those interested in Native American genealogy or history because that census was the first to enumerate all classes of Indians” (

     The work is accompanied by copious iconography, including chromolithographs by Julian Scott (1846-1901), military and portrait painter best known for his plates in this volume and first recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor for battlefield bravery (Scott also wrote the text on the Moqui in this volume).  Among Scott’s portraits of Native Americans is noted Comanche leader Quanah Parker (this print is listed in Ron Tyler’s, Unpublished Typescript on Texas Lithographs of the Nineteenth Century). “Economically, Parker promoted the creation of a ranching industry and led the way by becoming a successful and quite wealthy stock raiser himself. He also supported agreements with white ranchers allowing them to lease grazing lands within the Comanche reservation” (Handbook of Texas Online: Quanah Parker). Scott also contributed the portrait of noble Shoshone chief Washakie in full regalia at Fort Washakie, Wyoming, in 1891. The sharply chiseled portrait of Sioux Sitting Bull in South Dakota in 1890 was made by William Gilbert Gaul (1855-1919), an important documenter of military and Western life.  The photographic illustrations document Native Americans as nothing else can, with portraits, abodes, social history, artifacts, architecture, and a way of life that was disappearing rapidly.

     The maps are valuable cartographic and ethnic documentation, especially master lithographer Julius Bien’s Map of Indian Territory and Oklahoma 1890.  This outstanding map shows the Territory at a pivotal moment of transition.  On April 22, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison formally opened the central tract, known as the “Oklahoma Country,” to settlement by non-Native Americans. The entire western portion of Indian Territory was organized as the Oklahoma Territory in 1890, and additional Native lands were opened to settlers over the course of the 1890s.  The two territories were merged in 1907 to form the state of Oklahoma.  ($1,000-2,000)

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