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102. [MAP].  [SIGÜENZA Y GÓNGORA, Carlos de (after)].  Mapa de las Aguas que pr. el Circulo de 90. leguas vienen a la Laguna de Tesuco y la Ytención qe esta y la de Chalco tienen deliniado pr. D. Carlos Zaguen [i.e., Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora][above top neat line] |1945 |19a25 51 [to left of left neat line] |27930 [to right of right neat line] |2793o [below neat line]:  Montes de Oca Go en- Puebla C ct Yglcias [Calle de Iglesias]. N.p., n.d. [Puebla, 1831].  Copper-engraved map of the watershed of the Valley of Mexico.  Neat line to neat line: 16 x 20.5 cm.  Creased where formerly folded, blank margins chipped (more so at left margin, no loss of text or image), mild to moderate foxing and light stains (mostly confined to blank margins and upper left corner of map).

     Since Aztec times the drainage of the valley has been of utmost concern to the inhabitants because of the numerous floods that have caused great destruction.  During the eighteenth century there was a series of attempts to correct the desagüe problem once and for all.  The present map is part of a cartographical sequence harking back to a map first created by Sigüenza y Góngora in the late seventeenth century, but not published until 1748 in Joseph Francisco Cuevas Aguirre y Espinosa’s work on the drainage problem and possible solutions (Extracto de los autos de diligencias, y reconocimientos de los rios, lagunas, vertientes, y desagües de la capital México, y su valle, Mexico:  J. Bernardo de Hogal, 1748; Medina, México 3887). Sigüenza (1645-1700), historian, mathematician, astronomer, poet, philosopher, antiquarian, and professor at the University of Mexico for over two decades, was “perhaps the most remarkable man born in Mexico during the viceregal period" (Wagner, Spanish Southwest 63).  Sigüenza’s map was reworked by José Antonio Alzate y Ramírez in 1786 and others.

     The present map is a late Mexican copper engraving, apparently reworked from an earlier engraving by noted engraver and artist José María Montes de Oca (see Romero de Terreros, Grabados y grabadores en la Nueva España, pp. 500-503; also Manuel Cortina Portilla, Una Biografía en grabados, Mexico, 1994).  The map appeared in Alzate y Ramírez’s Gacetas de literatura de Mexico (Puebla: Oficina del Hospital de S. Pedro, 1831; Palau 10139), which is a reprint of the work that first appeared in Mexico City in 1789-1792 (Medina, Mexico 7750).  For the cartographical evolution of this map, see Ola Apenes, Mapas Antiguos del Valle Mexico, Mexico, 1947, pp. 23-24.  ($300-600)

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