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October 26, 2007

“Engravers who well understood their art, and their maps are outstanding”-Wheat

6. [ATLAS]. ROGERS, Henry Darwin & A[lexander] Keith Johnston. Atlas of the United States of North America, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Mexico, Central America, Cuba, and Jamaica. On a Uniform Scale. From the Most Recent State Documents, Marine Surveys, and Unpublished Materials. With Plans of the Principal Cities and Sea-Ports, and an Introductory Essay on the Physical Geography, Products, and Resources of North America. London: Edward Stanford, 6, Charing Cross, S.W. [The Authors Reserve the Right of Translation.], n.d. [1857]. 20 pp., 30 lithograph maps with original hand coloring (24 of which are folded with sheet size measuring 36.5 x 42.5 cm; half sheet maps measure 36.5 x 25 cm; map of Charleston on pastedown, neat line to neat line measuring 25 x 19.2 cm). Folio, original blind-embossed purple cloth lettered in gilt on upper cover (Atlas Of The United States, British & Central America: By Prof. Rogers & A. Keith Johnston). Expertly rebacked in sympathetic cloth, original endsheets retained. Edges of covers moderately faded, some light shelf wear, title lightly foxed, a few maps with very light offsetting, otherwise fine. Overall the maps are very fine, with superb original hand color, and well preserved, in part due to the excellent materials used to create the maps and their original mounting on stubs for ease of use and to prevent damage to centerfolds. Contemporary bookseller’s printed ticket (Thos. Beet, 15 Conduit St. Bond Street, London, W.).

Map List

1. Index Map Explanation of Signs Used in the Atlas. Folded. Outline color.

2. General Map of the United States Showing the area and extent of the Free & Slave-Holding States, and the Territories of the Union. Folded. Full color.

3. Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton & Prince Edward Is. Folded. Outline color and shading.

4. Upper or Western and Lower or Eastern Canada. Folded. Outline color and shading.

5. States of Michigan. Wisconsin and Iowa.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

6. Territory of Minnesota.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

7. Territory of Nebraska... Folded. Outline color in blue and yellow, shading.

8. Territories of Washington and Oregon.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

9. States of Maine, N. Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

10. States of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, (with the District of Columbia) North Carolina, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Indiana.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

11. States of Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Shows North Texas from Clarkesville to Fort Belknap.

12. Territory of Kansas. and Indian Territory.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Includes part of Texas Panhandle and North Texas.

13. Territory of Utah.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

14. State of California.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

15. States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

16. States of Mississippi and Louisiana.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Includes East Texas and as far west as Austin, and south to below Corpus Christi.

17. State of Texas.... Folded. Outline color and shading. This is a superb map of Texas, with excellent, copious detail, yet carefully designed to be easy to read. Counties are outlined in red, and geological features, many forts, cities and towns, water sources and waterways (including navigational possibilities on the Colorado River), mines, emigrant crossings are indentified. El Paso is located but still identified as Franklin.

18. Territory of New Mexico.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Includes the western portion of the Texas Panhandle and Horsehead Crossing east of the Pecos to El Paso. The New Mexico Territory border with Mexico marks the Gadsden boundary with printed note: “Treaty of 1854.”

19. Mexico, North-Western States.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Includes Texas from El Paso to south of Fort Leaton. As in preceding map, the Gadsden Purchase is indicated on the map. All of Baja California is shown on this map.

20. Mexico, North-Eastern States & Central States.... Folded. Outline color and shading. Here Texas is shown from southern Big Bend to Brownsville on the coast and north to above Matagorda Island.

21. Mexico. Southern States.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

22. Central America States of Yucatan Guatemala, S. Salvador, & Honduras, with the British Colony of Belize.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

23. Central America States of Nicaragua, & Costa Rica, with part off the Republic of New Granada.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

24. West Indies Island of Cuba...Jamaica...Central America States of Yucatan Guatemala, S. Salvador, & Honduras, with the British Colony of Belize.... Folded. Outline color and shading.

25. Atlas of United States &c. Half sheet with 2 oval maps: Quebec and Its Environs and Montreal. Bodies of water in blue, map printed on tan ground.

26. Atlas of United States &c. Half sheet with oval map: New York and Its Environs. Bodies of water in blue, map printed on tan ground.

27. Atlas of United States &c. Half sheet with 2 maps: Philadelphia & Vicinity (circular); Boston and Its Environs (oval). Bodies of water in blue, map printed on tan ground.

28. Atlas of United States &c. Half sheet with 2 maps: Cincinnati & Vicinity (circular); Louisville Jeffersonville & Vicinity (oval map). Bodies of water in blue, map printed on tan ground.

29. Atlas of United States &c. Half sheet with 2 maps: New Orleans (circular); San Francisco (oval map). Bodies of water in blue, map printed on tan ground.

[30]. Unnumbered map on front pastedown: The City of Charleston. (South Carolina.) With its Harbour and Forts. [below neat line] London Published by Edward Stanford, 6 Charing Cross, Feb. 1st. 1861. Half sheet. Bodies of water shaded blue, Forts Johnson, Sumner, and Moultrie marked in red.

            First edition. Day, Maps of Texas, pp. 68-69 (listing the general map of the U.S. [Map 2 above], but not the separate map of Texas [Map 17 above]). LeGear, United States Atlases L41. Phillips, Atlases 3670. Sabin 62699. Rumsey 3825: “Unusual collaboration between a Scot (Johnston), an American (Rogers), and an Englishman (Stanford). The maps are all on a scale of 54.5 miles to one inch, and are very well executed. They are derived from the large Map of The United States, British & Central America, by Rogers and Johnston, 1857 [Rumsey 4390]. The western U.S. maps show the routes of the proposed Pacific Railroad. Rogers probably wrote the descriptive text. Johnston engraved and drew the maps-these maps are perhaps the best examples of Scottish highly detailed mapmaking applied to the western territories and states, in the pre-Civil War period.”

            Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West #933 (California) & #934 (Utah). Wheat comments on the maps (Vol. IV, p. 6): “Despite its American copyright the map bears the signs of having been produced in Europe. [The California map] extends east to Sevier Lake, and is a map carefully made (though none too accurate) and easily read. The mining region of California is not cluttered with too many names, and while the Nevada portion shows no route, the map is clear and distinct. Another of the the map of Utah, including Nevada and a large part of Arizona and New Mexico (south to Albuquerque). Utah (and Nevada) is divided into its counties, and the proposed railroad routes are colored purple. Gunnison’s route goes out to the point on the Sevier River where he met his death. Beckwith’s route is shown both east and west of Great Salt Lake, and the route along the Snake is shown at the top of the map. This map is, like the one previous, notable for its clarity, though it is equally notable for the amount of information that it contains. W. and A. K. Johnston, of Edinburgh, were engravers who well understood their art, and their maps are outstanding.” Wheat, Maps of the Gold Region #307.

            This atlas contains important Western maps and a noteworthy Texas map, all of which are present here in the preferred state-as they were originally issued, rather than removed and sold separately. The maps of the territories of Utah and New Mexico were, if not the first published, among the earliest commercial atlas maps published showing these territories individually rather than combined with other states or territories. Some of the other maps, such as those of the territories of Kansas, Nebraska, Washington, and Oregon, are also early representations of those short-lived political entities, which would soon be even further carved up to create smaller territories from which most of the states West of the Mississippi would eventually emerge.

            Although Canada, Central America, and the East Coast are shown in fairly static terms, the Transmississippi West is depicted generally as an expanding, fluid territory. Vast amounts of territories such as New Mexico, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, and Minnesota cluster around the settled boundaries of Texas and California. The main avenues of expansion in these areas are railroads from the East, from such places as Omaha and Independence to California and Oregon. The railroad routes are distinctly drawn in vivid purple ink, and several of the maps have a stamp added in the same purple ink reading: “Proposed Pacific Railway Routes in Purple.” In his introduction, Rogers after reviewing the main physical features of North America, concentrates his efforts on a description of the rapidly expanding United States, using various tables to indicate the astonishing growth that the nation is undergoing. In regards to the railroads, some of the statistics are curious, to say the least. Of the railroads that replied to a request for information from the Secretary of the Treasury, it emerges that during the past year the average miles travelled by each passenger was eighteen miles and that freight was hauled an average of twenty-three miles.

            Rogers also remarks at some length upon the enormous amount of immigration to the United States, which is backed up by a table showing relative growth in 1790, 1820, and 1850. In that period, for example, Alabama sextupled its size; the growth in Arkansas was even more prodigious; Tennessee went from fewer than 500,000 to over a million population between 1820 and 1850. The East Coast states, especially those in the North, grew at a much slower rate. Such disparities in population increase might well have worried abolitionists as they contemplated the fates of the territories about to become states. Despite the Missouri Compromise line shown on the special map to indicate slave and non-slave states, the burgeoning populations of areas south of that line must have been disconcerting, especially since that legislation had already been undone by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Compromise of 1850. Rogers, however, hastens to reassure everyone that the free states still have far more population by a majority of 39% than slave states (p. 19). Overall, this beautiful atlas captures a wonderfully detailed snapshot of the nation in the period between the Mexican-American and Civil Wars.

            Tooley provides excellent information on all the participants in this elegant, understated, accomplished atlas, which is very restrained in comparison to many atlas productions of the era. Publisher Englishman Edward Stanford (1827-1904) was truly a map mogul. The Stanford firm continues to the present time. Scotsman Alexander Keith Johnston (1804-1871) styled himself “Geographer at Edinburgh in Ordinary to the Queen” and engraved the first British atlas providing a synoptic view of physical geography. Professor Henry Darwin (1808-1866), recognized as one the foremost geologists of the nineteenth century, spent about two decades with the U.S. Geological Survey and is best known as the director of the first geological survey of Pennsylvania (1836-1842). He unraveled the structural and stratigraphic complexities of the Appalachian Chain and documented the economically important resources of Pennsylvania. He taught at the University of Glasgow, becoming the first American to hold a Regius professorship in Scotland. At the time the present atlas was published, the culmination of Rogers’ two decades of work came to fruition with the publication of the present atlas, the large 1857 map on which this atlas is based (Map of the United States, British & Central America, from State Documents & Unpublished Material), and his two-volume geological study of Pennsylvania (1858) which contained two major maps of Pennsylvania (one of which was among the early geological maps printed in color). ($6,000-$10,000)

Sold. Hammer: $6,000.00; Price Realized: $7,050.00

Auction 21 Abstracts

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