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AUCTION 21

October 26, 2007

Colter’s Hell Deconstructed & Preserved
Monumental Environmental Classic of the Rockies

57. [HAYDEN EXPEDITION]. UNITED STATES. GEOLOGICAL & GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES. HAYDEN, F[erdinand] V[andeveer]. [Annual Reports, First to Twelfth (titles vary; see below)]. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1871-1883. 755 maps and plates (many folding, colored and/or on tinted grounds): 90 lithograph maps, 665 lithograph and engraved plates (some based on the work of artist Thomas Moran with his three-letter colophon TYM for his adopted professional name Thomas “Yellowstone” Moran). 12 vols., 8vo (23.4 x 15 cm), original dark brown panelled cloth, inner edges of panels with original blindstamping “U.S. Government Bindery,” spines lettered in gilt (final portfolio volume lettered in gilt on upper cover with thick ribbon ties). Apparently the volumes originate from the Geologisches und Palaeontologisches Institut of the University of Leipzig, with their stamps in two of the volumes; the Sixth Annual Report has Hayden’s printed presentation slip on front pastedown and the University’s deaccession on title page. Hayden’s presentation slip is also in the Ninth Annual Report, but without the deaccession stamp. Many of the volumes also have old brief notes in German in them, and occasionally a contemporary ink signature. Overall this a near fine example of a set often found in tatters and/or incomplete, the primary imperfection being the usual outer wear due to the insubstantial government binding and, in the case of the two text volumes of the Twelfth Annual Report, the inability of the bindings to accommodate adequately the hefty text blocks. The plates and maps are generally very fine and bright with minimal condition problems, primarily consisting of short clean splits along map folds (no losses). The plates are pristine, though a few have minor marginal tears not affecting images. Most tissue guards appear to be present and have performed their duty well. The text is excellent. Condition reports for each volume are below. Cites to entire work include: British Museum, Natural History, p. 2174. Casey Wood, Vertebrate Zoology, p. 607.

1. [FIRST, SECOND & THIRD ANNUAL REPORTS]. First, Second, and Third Annual Reports of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories for the Years 1867, 1868, and 1869, under the Department of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1873. 261 [1 blank] pp. Head of spine lightly chipped, old printed paper label on spine, light shelf wear, interior very fine.

            Third edition of the First and Second Annual Reports; Second edition of the Third Annual Report. The First and Second Annual Reports originally appeared in the 1867 and 1868 Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, respectively. The First and Second Annual Reports were then reprinted by the Second and Third Sessions of the Fortieth Congress, respectively. The Third Report first appeared on its own in 1869 as a field report of the U.S. Geological Survey. Colorado-Henkle Collection 818. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 80. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, p. 10.

2. [FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Wyoming, and Portions of Contiguous Territories (Being a Second Annual Report of Progress.) Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. by F V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1871. 511 [1 blank] pp., engraved text illustrations. Corners lightly bumped, cloth slightly wrinkled.

            First edition; second edition 1872. Braislin 926: “[Contains] the only known cut of Fort Mitchell” (p. 110). Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 80. Sabin 31006. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 10-11.

3. [FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Montana and Portions of Adjacent Territories; Being a Fifth Annual Report of Progress, by F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872. vi, [3]-[12], [2], [13]-524, [2], [525]-538 pp., 5 folded maps, 2 plates, engraved text illustrations. Head of spine lightly chipped, cloth with a few spots, front hinge open.

            First edition. Braislin 926: “First Report on the Yellowstone Park after its becoming a National Reservation.” Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Norris 2552. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, p. 12.

            Included is the following map listed by Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, p. 344 & #1225: Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories Yellowstone Lake Wyoming Territory Surveyed by the Party in Charge of F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist 1871. Neat line to neat line: 37.5 x 37.5 cm. Wheat remarks of this map: “The best of the maps in Hayden’s Fifth Annual Report (Washington, 1872) is that depicting ‘Yellowstone Lake Wyoming Territory Surveyed by the Party in charge of F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist 1871.’ Declared to have been compiled and drawn by E. Hergesheimer from field notes and sketches of A. Schönborn and H. W. Elliott, it shows the lake and environs, with names given the islands and with soundings. An elementary hachure technique is used to show physical relief.”

            Wheat also lists another map in the Fifth Annual Report (Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, pp. 345-346 & #1231: Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories Yellowstone National Park from Surveys made under the Direction of F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist and other Authorities 1871 [above lower right neat line] Compiled and Drawn by E. Hergesheimer. Neat line to neat line: 30.4 x 28.2 cm. Wheat comments: “A more general map of the area was constructed early in 1872 while the Yellowstone Park bill was being pressed in Congress.... This map depicts in rather clumsy hachure the park area (with proper boundaries-which it will be remembered, were Hayden’s personal contribution to the Park bill) and the mountainous country on all sides.... In his Report Hayden says: ‘In order that the geographical locality of the reservation containing within its boundaries the wonderful falls, hot-springs, geysers, &c., described in the previous chapters of this report, may be more clearly understood, I have prepared a map expressly to show the park with its surroundings, on a scale of ten miles to one inch.... A glance at the map will show to the reader the geographical locality of the most beautiful lake in the world, set like a gem among the mountains. He will also see that the mountains that wall it in on every side form one of the most remarkable water-sheds on the continent. The snows that are on the summits give origin to three of the largest rivers in North America.... From any point of view which we may select to survey this remarkable region, it surpasses, in many respects, any other portion of our continent.’ (The Yellowstone bill became law while Hayden was composing this report, so the provisional park boundaries shown on his mark were the legal boundaries by the time it was published.)”

            Wheat (Vol. V, Part 2, pp. 344 & #1231n) mentions the following map as well: Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories Upper Geyser Basin Fire Hole River Wyoming Territory Surveyed by the Party in Charge of F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist 1872 Compiled and Drawn from Field Notes and Sketches of A. Schönborn by E. Hergesheimer. Neat line to neat line: 23.3 x 30 cm.

4. [SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Sixth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, Embracing Portions of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah; Being a Report of Progress of the Explorations for the Year 1872. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1873. xi [1 blank], 844 pp., 5 maps (3 folded), 16 plates (4 folded), engraved text illustrations. Cloth at head of spine with short clean break, lettering faded, old printed paper label.

            First edition. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, pp. 80-81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 13-14.

            Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, p. 346 & #1233 (citing the larger version of this reduced version map that appeared in the report): Deptmt of Interior U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories F. V. Hayden in Charge. Map of the Sources of the Snake River with its Tributaries together with portions of the Headwaters of the Madison and Yellow Stone Principally the results from Observation during the Snake River Expedition Reduced from the Preliminary Map after Surveys by Gustavus R. Bechler. Chf. Top. Snake River Expedition [below neat line lower right] J. Bien Lith.. Neat line to neat line: 26.6 x 25.2 cm. Wheat calls the map “interesting” and comments: “The map was lithographed, and we are at a loss to explain why a reduced version replaced it in the Report. In a very attractive way, it shows the country from Fort Hall to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, and as far east as the upper Yellowstone River. The appeal of the original carries over to the published reduction.”

5. [SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Colorado, Being a Report of the Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1873, by F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874. xii, 718 pp., 11 maps (7 folded), 88 plates (10 folded), engraved text illustrations. Head of spine slightly frayed, spine nicked with loss of a few letters, corners lightly bumped.

            First edition. Colorado-Henkle Collection 820. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 14-15. Wynar 222.

            Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, p. 347 & #1239 cites the following map: Department of the Interior U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist in Charge. Preliminary Map of Central Colorado Showing the Region Surveyed in 1873 Primary Triangulation by J. T. Gardner. Topography by G. R. Bechler, Henry Gannett, and A. D. Wilson. Neat line to neat line: 58 x 43.5 cm: “Along the way to [Hayden’s Atlas of Colorado, 1877] Hayden’s Annual Reports show that he and his Survey were becoming much more knowledgeable about map construction. [The present] map may be mentioned in the Seventh Report, which describes initial field operations in Colorado.”

6. [EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Colorado and Parts of Adjacent Territories; Being a Report of the Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1874. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1876. ix [1 blank], 366, [16], 367-515 [1 blank] pp., 10 maps (9 folding, 3 colored), 72 plates (14 folded), engraved text illustrations. Corners slightly bumped.          First edition. Colorado-Henkle Collection 821. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 15-16. Wynar 223. Includes the following map listed by Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West Vol. V, Part 2, p. 347 & #1246: Preliminary Map of Central Colorado Showing the Region Surveyed in 1873 and 1874 Primary Triangulation by J. T. Gardner Topography by G. R. Bechler, Henry Gannett A. D. Wilson and S. B. Ladd. Neat line to neat line: 62.5 x 57.9 cm. Wheat mentions other maps in this volume with excellent topographical work by George B. Chittenden (p. 347).

            Another of the impressive maps in this volume, done at the time when Colorado became a state (1876) is: Department of the Interior U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories F. V. Hayden U.S. Geologist in Charge General Geological Map of Colorado. Neat line to neat line: 64.5 x 89.5 cm. Full color. In addition to its appearance in the present report, this map appeared in Hayden’s 1877 atlas and, with changes, in the 1881 edition, both of which were entitled Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado. Wheat (Mapping the Transmississippi West #1281 & pp. 347-49) comments on Hayden’s geological maps: “Cartographically, the 1877 Atlas was the highest expression of the labors of the Hayden Survey in Colorado.” See also Rumsey (4576.004), who remarks that Hayden’s geological maps “are very detailed and present the best mapping of Colorado at the time.” See also, Ellis, Colorado Mapology (pp. 81-82) where he remarks of the Colorado maps from Hayden’s survey: “The results of the first thorough survey of Colorado [and] the basic reference for the conditions in the mid-seventies in the State.” A curious feature of this map are several notations in the southwest portion concerning “Ruins” and “Cliff Houses” in the area of Mesa Verde. According to the National Park Service, miners and prospectors were aware of Mesa Verde, and one of them led party member and photographer William Henry Jackson to the site, where he entered and also named the two-story “Cliff House.” Volume 10, below, contains the report of the discovery.

            Two other superb Colorado maps in this volume that also appeared in Hayden’s atlas of Colorado are: (1) Department of the Interior U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories F. V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist in Charge. Economic Map of Colorado. Neat line to neat line: 64.4 x 89.2 cm; (Rumsey 4576.003, 1881 edition): “Map in full color showing agricultural, pasture, sage and ‘bad’ lands. Pine forests, cedars and quaking aspen groves are shown. The gold and silver districts are noted”; and (2) Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F.V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist in Charge. Drainage Map of Colorado. Topography by A.D. Wilson, G.R. Bechler, Henry Gannett, G.B. Chittenden and S.B. Ladd....March 1877. Neat line to neat line: 64.2 x 89 cm; (Rumsey 4576.002, 1881 edition): “Map shows the drainage of the state in blue with the railroads shown in black. Drainage that is dry during the majority of the year is noted by blue dots.”

7. [NINTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Ninth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Colorado and Parts of Adjacent Territories: Being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1875. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1877. vii [1 blank], 587 [1 blank], [2], 589-809 [1 blank], [18], 811-827 [1 blank] pp., 12 maps (10 folded), 62 plates (19 folded), engraved text illustrations. Spine extremities slightly frayed, spine slightly faded (affecting lettering), upper cover lightly stained, front hinge starting.

            First edition. Colorado-Henkle Collection 822. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 16-17. Wynar 224.

8. [TENTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Tenth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Colorado and Parts of the Adjacent Territories, Being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1876. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1878. xxix [1 blank], 546 pp., 10 maps (9 folded), 71 plates (19 folded, 4 on tinted grounds), engraved text illustrations. Professionally recased, spine and cloth faded, light shelf wear.

            First edition. Colorado-Henkle Collection 823. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 17-18. Wynar 225. This volume includes reports of the explorations of William H. Holmes and William H. Jackson in southwestern Colorado and the discovery of Mesa Verde, leading to proposals to systematically study Mesa Verde and other Southwestern archaeological sites. Included are illustrations and maps relating to Jackson and Holmes’ researches, such as: Map of the Region Occupied by the Ancient Ruins in Southern Colorado, Utah & Northern New Mexico and Arizona also Showing the Location of Most of the Modern Pueblos. Neat line to neat line: 47.5 x 61.5 (see Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, p. 348).

9. [ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT]. Eleventh Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Idaho and Wyoming, Being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1877. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1879. xxviii, 176, 161-319 [1 blank], [20], 321-720 pp. (text complete), 8 folded maps, 81 plates (18 folded, 14 on tinted grounds). Spine faded, light shelf wear.

            First edition. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, p. 18.

10. [TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT: PART ONE]. Twelfth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories: A Report of Progress of the Exploration in Wyoming and Idaho for the Year 1878. In Two Parts. Part I. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883. xviii, 39 [1 blank], [16], 41-48, [2], 49-103 [1 blank], [22], 105-118, [4], 119-141 [1 blank], [8], 143-153 [1 blank], [4], 155-171 [1 blank], [8], 173-293 [1 blank], [4], 295-809 [1 blank] pp., 3 folded maps (1 colored), 152 plates (14 folded, 4 colored, 98 on tinted grounds), engraved text illustrations. Spine extremities frayed, lettering slight faded, shaken due to heavy book block with a few leaves and plates loose, text block slightly cracked in two places.

            First edition. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, p. 19-20.

11. [TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT: PART TWO]. Twelfth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories: A Report of Progress of the Exploration in Wyoming and Idaho for the Year 1878. In Two Parts. Part II. By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. Conducted under the Authority of the Secretary of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883. xxv [1 blank], 454, [2], 455-503 [1 blank] pp., 17 maps (12 folded), 120 plates (1 folded & tinted, 4 colored, 66 tinted), engraved text illustrations. Spine slightly faded, small spot at foot of spine, frontispiece, several plates and leaves detached because binding has split in a few places due to weight of book block.

            First edition. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, pp. 19-20.

12. [TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT: PORTFOLIO]. Maps and Panoramas Twelfth Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories [cover title]. [Washington: Government Printing Office], 1878. Front pastedown is printed leaf, List of Sheets [1-7]. 9 folded maps (6 colored), 1 folded plate on tinted ground. Joints cracked, a few short, clean splits to some maps (no losses).

            First edition. Hasse, Reports of Explorations Printed in the Documents of the United States Government, p. 81. Schmeckebier, Hayden, King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys, p. 19-20. Wheat (Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, pp. 348-349) refers to the following map as being in Part 2 of the Twelfth Annual report, but in the present set it is actually found as Map 6 in the portfolio: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F.V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist in Charge. Preliminary Geological Map of the Yellowstone National Park Surveyed in 1878 W. H. Holmes, Geological Assistant [below neat line] Primary Triangulation by A. D. Wilson. | Julius Bien, Lith | Secondary Triangulation and Topography by Henry Gannett, M.E. Neat line to neat line: 81.2 x 72 cm. Full color.

            As the ever-swelling and increasing physical bulk of this series indicates, Hayden’s explorations and activities grew from modest beginnings to vitally important sources that influenced science, Western development, and government policy. Starting off as modest, unillustrated inclusions in land office reports, the reports grew yearly in their own right until the final report, which was so large and detailed that it must have exhausted writers, artists, lithographers, engravers, printers, and binders alike. Even for a government work, the Twelfth Annual Report is an impressive achievement on many levels. The utilitarian, brown cloth government bindings barely reflect the importance or beauty of the contents.

            Hardly the heirs of Humboldt and Bonpland, Hayden and his fellow scientists did not seek cosmic revelations but rather the seemingly more pedestrian ones found in the countless details of rock strata and fossils. However, those details proved to be more important in the end than the cosmic theories and integrations Humboldt sought and interpreted. If nothing else, they laid the foundation for Darwin’s theory of evolution to be debated and finally accepted by a growing number of nineteenth-century scientists. As part of their work, Hayden’s team established the existence of strata that held the keys to understanding what the North American continent looked like at various periods of geological time. They studied the myriad plants and animals whose fossils had been found in the various strata. Much of that evidence led to potentially disturbing scientific conclusions highly supportive of evolutionary theory. It suggested, for example, that America might be just as old, if not older, than Europe. As Goetzmann concludes: “[A]s the experience of the Topographical Corps and its scientific partners shows, the very enthusiasm of the Humboldtean scientist led to the change in the scientific approach. If the Humboldtean was to comprehend the cosmos, he had first to account for every phenomenon in it. But the search after all these pieces of data of infinite variety and exotic appeal eventually engulfed the searcher in a multitude of natural facts-enough so that their very abundance made him stop and construct his limited pattern of order. That was what Hayden’s work represented for the study of western geology” (Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863, Texas State Historical Association, 1991, p. 423).

            The proliferating amount of words found in the reports were matched by an equally increasing number of visual effects presented in text illustrations, plates, and maps. The maps contained in the report and its atlas are the zeniths of both the mapmaker’s art and the lithographer’s skills and represent the culmination of advancing knowledge and increasingly sophisticated mapping procedures, such as the use of contour lines instead of hachure. Lithographer Julius Bien contributed to the work (“Bien will always be remembered chiefly as the first great scientific cartographer in the United States”-Peters, America on Stone, p. 94). As more and more expeditions explored the West, the amount of information to be presented grew proportionately. The U.S. government proved up to the task not only of launching expeditions but also of attractively printing the results. Even such seemingly minor details as fossilized shells and bones were captured in superb lithographs, often printed on tinted grounds. Rarely, for example, does one encounter a special report on buzzards complete with detailed lithographs of skeletal features, such as is embodied here in the Twelfth Annual Report, Part I (pp. 727-804). Atypical presentations abound, such as the plates of Yellowstone geyserites and tufas presented in bold chiaroscuro in the final text volume. Sparkling white specimens spring from dense velvety black backgrounds, creating an effect simultaneously dramatic, scientific, and painstakingly accurate, in conformity with Hayden’s contention that “[i]t is possible to make natural history entertaining and attractive as well as instructive, with no loss of scientific precision.” The natural history images were, of course, supplemented by the more typical lithograph views and vistas that the country offered. Somewhat more mundanely presented, usually in black and white, were dozens of depictions of rock formations, mountains, and geological strata that complement the maps and fossil records.

            Not dwelling exclusively on what was of geological, historical interest, the scientists also presented information on resources to be found in the West at the time and how they might be utilized. Among the reports is a history of the American bison (by J. A. Allen, author of the 1877 classic History of the American Bison, Bison Americanus). Sometimes there are surprising inclusions, such as a discussion of Texas cattle by Hiram Latham that begins: “Texas is truly the cattle hive of North America” (Fourth Annual Report, 1871, p. 255). Latham is quoted at length on the subject of trans-Missouri pastoral lands and stock-raising (ibid, pp. 248-257). Latham’s comments in this volume include some of his earlier periodical appearances, such as Byers’ Rocky Mountain News. Latham is well-known to cattle collectors for his exceedingly rare work Trans-Missouri Stock Raising (Omaha, 1871), which Jeff Dykes called “the first general appraisal of any important segment of our great cow country.” Dykes included it in three of his lists in Western High Spots (pp. 16, 22, and 86), including his “Ten Most Outstanding Books on the West.” See also: Adams, Herd 1309. Howes L118. Reese, Six Score 68.

            The most celebrated and famous reports in the series are probably the ones on the Yellowstone area, which enchanted Hayden and which he studied in detail. Whatever lingering doubts there may have been in the public and scientific minds concerning the wonders of this area, they were cleared completely by Hayden and his fellow scientists. Their description succeeded in ways that previous ones had failed, and dispelling the myth of “Colter’s Hell” once and for all. In some respects, Hayden lavished more attention on this area than on any other. Before Hayden’s twelfth and final report, the area had never been described so accurately or lavishly. Sparing no expense or effort, Hayden filled the report with dozens of lithographs. The iconography was also aided by  artist Henry W. Elliott’s presence on the expedition and by celebrated photographer William H. Jackson, who took the first ever photograph of the Mountain of the Holy Cross on this expedition. Some of the Yellowstone images are even humorous, such as one showing a man fleeing an erupting Old Faithful. Hayden’s work led directly to the establishment of the area as the first U.S. national park, and the preface of the Twelfth Annual Report (Part II) includes the original 1872 Congressional proceedings relating to that momentous event.

            Of special iconographic interest are the various plates based on the work of Thomas Moran (1837-1926), the extraordinary artist whose dazzling artwork is unique in nineteenth-century U.S. art for its vivid coloring, brilliant use of light, and masterly, dramatic sweep. Moran’s images, which  convey an emotional and visceral sense of the wonders of the West, occupy a central position in U.S. cultural history for their influence on the preservation of the Western landscape. (See Peter Boag, “Thomas Moran and Western Landscapes: An Inquiry into an Artist’s Environmental Values” in The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 67, No. 1, February 1998, pp. 40-66; and Linda C. Hults, “Thomas Moran’s ‘Shoshone Falls’: A Western Niagara” in Smithsonian Studies in American Art, Vol. 3, No. 1, Winter, 1989, pp. 88-102). Moran accompanied Hayden on the Yellowstone expedition and made other trips to the area. The Yellowstone report, for example, contains four vividly colored lithographs based on Moran’s work. In addition, there are other images of Moran’s work in this set, such as a view of the Mountain of the Holy Cross in the 1876 Ninth Annual Report, which is based on a painting Moran had completed in 1875. The dramatic Turneresque drawings and watercolors Moran brought back from the Hayden Expedition helped persuade Congress that this otherworldly land of hot springs and geysers should be preserved.

            Moran’s field drawings from the Hayden expedition served as an artistic springboard evolving into grand oil paintings, such as “Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone,” purchased by the United States in 1872, only weeks after Yellowstone became the country’s first “national park,” and the first landscape painting to hang in the Capitol. A version of that image can be found in the present work. Another incarnation of Moran’s Yellowstone images from the Hayden expedition is the 1876 Hayden-Moran portfolio chromolithographed by Louis Prang (The Yellowstone National Park, and the Mountain Ranges of Portions of Idaho, Nevada, Colorado and Utah; Bennett, p. 80). This work is generally considered to be the most proficient and among the most aesthetic uses of chromolithography in the nineteenth-century United States. (Goetzmann & Goetzmann, The West of the Imagination, pp. 170-182 and Tyler, Prints of the West, pp. 140-147). Versions of four of Moran’s chromolithograph images of Yellowstone in the present work are also in the 1876 Hayden-Moran portfolio (“Pink Terraces. Mammoth Hot Springs Gardiner's River”; “Great Blue Spring. Lower Geyser Basin”; “Castle Geyser and Beautiful Spring Upper Geyser Basin”; “Grand Canon of the Yellowstone River”).

            Although primarily a geologist and scientist, Hayden was hardly immune to or unaware of the practical value of his work to an expanding country and a restless citizenry. Interspersed among his geological reports are extensive passages covering such topics as timber, waterways, railroads, and potential passages through the area. As Donna Koepp remarks: “Through these efforts, he hoped to save the government many times the cost of his survey by demonstrating to Congress the amount of land that could be redeemed by irrigation and used for timber land, bottom land, etc., so that appropriate value could be placed on land grants to railroads and other corporations.... His writings also indicate that he was concerned about agricultural resources, timber conservation, and the development of water resources for irrigation in the arid lands of the West. He wrote for the layperson and businessman as well as for the politician. He wanted to convey the scenic beauty of the West to the American public and help them recognize its potential as a place to live and enjoy, [not] to be traversed on the way to somewhere else” (see Cohen, Mapping the West, p. 188).

            Hayden (1829-1887) was an accidental geologist. After living with his uncle following his father’s death when Hayden was only twelve, he matriculated at Oberlin College (having walked there, penniless, from Rochester, Ohio, in 1847), graduating in 1850. He became a doctor, but his acquaintance with paleontologist James Hall helped to determine his career after Hall sponsored him and F. B. Meek on an expedition to the South Dakota Bad Lands to collect specimens. After serving as a surgeon in the Civil War, he was appointed to a professorship at the University of Pennsylvania, a position from which he resigned in 1872 to devote his full time to exploring the West under the auspices of the federal government. Unfortunately, after a long series of significant exploring expeditions, Hayden’s deteriorating health forced him to give up both exploring and writing. He resigned in 1886.

            Finally, although it is tempting to focus on the Yellowstone and Moran’s seductive images, within the covers of these twelve volumes is a wealth of solid, newly discovered material relating Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Utah (and the rest of the United States, for that matter). Wheat sums up the matter thus: “Many other maps of local character or specialized interest found in Hayden’s many Reports and Bulletins we must turn our faces from, fascinating as it might be to get a picture of the distribution of the Cotton Army Worm or of the Chinch Bug, for instance, on maps showing the whole of the United States” (Mapping the Transmississippi West, Vol. V, Part 2, p. 348).

            Attempting to collect all the materials associated with Hayden’s expeditions would be a daunting task. (For another important piece in the Hayden Expedition literature and iconography, see next entry.) Hayden often published his results in periodicals and various other venues. Those who helped him, such as F. B. Meek, Joseph Leidy, and John Strong Newberry, also published their own separate scholarship based on specimens Hayden provided them for interpretation and classification. Finally, both Jackson and Moran, who accompanied him on the Yellowstone expedition, produced important works arising from that venture. This set of government reports is certainly a cornerstone of any such collection and a foundational work on the West. ($4,000-8,000)

Sold. Hammer: $4,000.00; Price Realized: $4,700.00

Auction 21 Abstracts

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