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AUCTION 22

 

High-Spot Texana

Moore's Rare & Important Emigrant Guide to Texas

Stephen F. Austin's Epochal Map

Very Early Engravings of Texas Scenes Based on Eye-Witness Drawings

First Published View of the Alamo

Click images or links labeled Enlarge to enlarge. Links labeled Zoom open zoomable images.

426.     MOORE, Francis, Jr. Map and Description of Texas, containing Sketches of its History, Geology, Geography and Statistics: With Concise Statements, relative to the Soil, Climate, Productions, Facilities of Transportation, Population of the Country; and Some Brief Remarks upon the Character and Customs of its Inhabitants. By Francis Moore, Jr., Editor of the Telegraph and Texas Register. Philadelphia: H. Tanner, Junr., New York: Tanner & D[i]sturnell, 1840 [title verso: Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1840, by H.S. Tanner, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania]. [1-5] 6-143, [1, blank], [1, errata; 1, blank] pp., 8 wood-engraved plates including frontispiece (see list below); large folding copper-engraved map of Texas by Stephen F. Austin (see below). 12mo (15.1 x 9.5 cm), original blind-embossed and dark brown publisher’s ribbed cloth, lettered in gilt on upper cover: Map and Description of Texas 1840. Original spine sympathetically laid down (small losses supplied); corners bumped with small amount of board showing; a few tiny voids in cloth. Binding slightly shelf slanted. Title page and frontispiece lightly foxed, scattered light foxing to text (mostly on pages adjacent to plates). Plates with mild foxing. Map with a few tiny, clean splits at folds (occasional miniscule loss), some of which have been professionally strengthened. The map is extraordinarily fine and handsome, with superb color retention. Preserved in new archival cloth clamshell box.

Map

AUSTIN, Stephen F. Genl. Austins Map of Texas With Parts of the Adjoining States Compiled by Stephen F. Austin Published by H.S. Tanner Philadelphia Note. The Latitude and Longitude of Saltillo Monterey Laredo Bexar Nacogdoches and the Point where the boundary line leaves the Sabine are from the Observations of General Teran of the Mexican Army. 1840. Engraved by John & Wm. W. Warr Philada. [lower left below neat line] Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1840, by H.S. Tanner, in the Clerks Office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1840. Copper-engraved map of Texas with original full hand-coloring of Texas, boundaries in rose and yellow, border in pale pink. Neat line to neat line: 72.5 x 58.5 cm; overall sheet size: 74.6 x 61.8 cm.

Plates

Approximate measurements for all plates: Neat line to neat line: 7.2 x 10.8 cm; image & print above and below: 7.6 x 10.8 cm; overall sheet size: 9 x 14.2 cm.

Ruins of the Alamo [top right above neat line] Frontispiece. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.1 (p. 41), p. 39 (text).

Mission of San Jose [top right above neat line] p. 36. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.2 (p. 41), p. 39 (text).

Mission del Espiritu Santo [top right above neat line] p. 37. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.3 (p. 41), p. 39 (text).

Mission la Concepcion [top right above neat line] p. 38. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.4 (p. 41), p. 39 (text).

Town of San Antonio de Bexar [top right above neat line] p. 48 [lower right below image] Sketched by W. Bissett. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.5 (p. 41), p. 39 (text). Bird’s-eye view.

Church in Square of San Antonio de Bexar [top right above neat line] p. 49 [lower right below image] Eng for Francis F. Moore Jr. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.6 (p. 42), p. 39 (text).

Town of Goliad Formerly La Bahia [top right above neat line] p. 74. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.7 (p. 42), p. 39 (text). Bird’s-eye view.

Scene near Austin [top right above neat line] p. 129 [lower right below image] Sketched by W. Bissett. Kelsey, Engraved Prints of Texas, figure 3.7 (p. 42), p. 39 (text). Bird’s-eye view.

     First edition of a primary emigration guide for Texas, with Stephen F. Austin’s map pulled from the plate of the first printing of that epochal map, and with engraved, eye-witness scenes of Texas, among the earliest such images (see Streeter’s comments below). A second issue of the book came out in 1844 (Streeter 1363A), consisting of a new title page, with the 1840 sheets (although apparently the first two leaves were reset), a totally different map in smaller format was substituted, and the plates were omitted. References to book: Bradford 3666. CBC (31 entries). Darrel Brown Sale, Lot 661 at Heritage 56103 (fetched $274,850 in December, 2007). Clark, Travels in the Old South III:212. Graff 2880. Howes M764. Raines, p. 151. Sabin 50353. Siebert Sale 7315:952. Streeter 1363.

     Austin’s map appears here in its rarest issue, fully colored and in its most complete form, more correctly reflecting the geography and political divisions of the Republic of Texas, with many added place names and showing both land grants and counties. The present map was pulled from the same plate as the original 1830 edition of Austin’s map, which was successively altered as it was reissued. In the present edition, the title has been changed by removing the Mexican eagle and substituting: “Genl. Austins.” The map in this book is based immediately on the 1839 edition of the map, but with important changes. According to Streeter (1363A note): “Among them, Harrisburg, Robertson, and Shelby Counties are now Harris, Milam, and Tanaha. Travis County is shown, which, as it was established in 1840, is not on the Hunt and Randel map of 1839 [see Item 234 herein]. Fayette County is incorrectly called Lafayette. The new capital of Texas, named City of Austin, is shown for the first time, and San Felipe de Austin is now Austin.” Despite Streeter’s statements, on the present map Robertson and Shelby Counties have not been renamed, leading one to believe that yet further research is needed on the various issues Austin’s map. In an apparent contradiction, Streeter (1348B note) states that the 1839 Hunt and Randel map “shows probably for the first time, the newly laid-out town on the north bank of the Colorado.”

     Austin’s 1830 map was issued only a few weeks before the passage of the Colonization Law, and together the two are the most important documents stimulating Anglo entrance into Texas. Henry Taliaferro in Paul E. Cohen’s, Mapping the West (pp. 110-113, color illustration on p. 111) elaborates on the importance of Austin’s 1830 map of Texas:

Few early maps of the American West have the importance, or romance, of Stephen F. Austin’s “Map of Texas with Parts of the Adjoining States,” published in Philadelphia in 1830. No part of the West had been previously mapped on such a large scale and in such detail. It was the first significant map to show the results of the Anglo-American immigration to Texas, and it was the work of the man who was responsible for that immigration—the Father of Modern Texas....

The growth and prosperity of the American colony in Texas was largely due to the management of Stephen F. Austin.... One little-known but evocative example of his legendary diligence was his construction of a very fine map of Texas, which was published by Henry Schenk Tanner [see Item 377 herein] in Philadelphia in 1830. At the beginning of the American settlement, the geography of Texas was very poorly understood. Austin quickly realized that good maps were necessary for the proper settlement and governance of the colony, and he began his surveys during his first weeks in Texas [in 1821]. In return for certain concessions, Austin offered to prepare an accurate map of Texas and its coasts for the Mexican government....

[Austin] hoped that the map would encourage further immigration to Texas. The printed map differs from the manuscript copy in the Austin Papers in a number of particulars.... Eugene C. Barker remarked that with the exception of notes furnished by General Manuel de Mier y Teran, the map was “entirely original, made without earlier map or sketch to guide him.”

It was the first meaningful map of Texas [and] the first to show any results from the American immigration to Texas.... The Texas river system is shown with accuracy that far outstrips that of any previous map.... Austin fixed the western boundary of the map a little west of the 102nd meridian, about 225 miles west of San Antonio, allowing him to show the settled parts of Texas on a large scale.

The map appeared in several editions until 1845. All editions are so rare and sought-after that Austin’s map commands a higher price in the market place than any other nineteenth-century American map. This is largely attributable to the great interest Texans have always exhibited for their state and history. At the time the map was published, the Anglo settlements in Texas were the vanguard of the American Western movement; the excellence of Austin’s map makes it one of the most important maps of Texas—not only for the state’s history, but also for documenting the early trans-Mississippi West.

     Jack Jackson (R.I.P.) provides a penetrating overview of Austin’s map in Shooting the Sun, Vol. II, pp. 452-459 (illustrated on p. 454):

Austin’s role as an initiator of the “modern period” of Texas cartographer is secure.... All maps are the result of painstaking compilation, and Austin’s contribution ranks with the best. Austin took the most current sources he could find on Texas and drew a ground-breaking map from them. Much of what he put on paper was based on his own observations and had greater value because of it. Moreover, Austin brought his map to publication, giving the world a better view of the geography of Texas than any man had presented in the foregoing 140 years.

How the appearance of Austin’s 1830 map may have directly contributed to that change of flags remains a nettlesome matter of debate. Certainly it aroused a great interest concerning Texas within the United States, and led men like Andrew Jackson and Sam Houston to look with longing eyes across the Sabine. Just as his map pointed out the roads to Texas and access to it by sea, it also told immigrants whom they must deal with when they arrived. Empresario grants became a common feature on the maps of Texas published in the wake of Austin’s pioneering effort, and even Tanner began to add such information to reissues of the 1830 map (see plate 110 for Moore’s edition of 1840 [present edition]).... Americans were bound and determined to acquire title to that land, just as Austin knew they would be.

Further, the excellence of Austin’s map was recognized during his lifetime. Berlandier [see Item 39 herein], for example, wrote that: “Even the most recent maps leave a great deal to be desired with regard to what is relative to Texas.... The most complete and the most exact work is due to colonization of Texas. The entrepreneur Mr. Stephen Austin, who has gathered much scientific data, has lately published a map of Texas which most closely approaches the truth.” Berlandier, as a scientist, could appreciate the merit of Austin’s map even while regretting the course of events in Texas that the map helped foster—by spurring American immigration, thereby sealing the political fate of the territory. Austin’s map remained a model for many of the other maps that attempted to cash in on the Texas land mania that swept the United States prior to the Revolution....

Old maps give us a sense of a land being formed from the mists of time. Through them we witness the birth process—our own as well as the land itself. We see recorded on maps the mistakes and wrong turns of our forefathers, but gradually their insights into the true nature of the terrain become manifest. These mapmakers told us who lived on the land and where, what marvelous things existed in those places, and how to reach them. Their greed shows in the legends they chose to fix on their maps, and their folly, too, but also their hope that Texas would be the new beginning that mankind periodically needs to redeem itself. It has proved to be such a place for many people over the centuries, and maps are our links to that common heritage. An appreciation of them, I believe, helps us to value our history and the many cultures that took part in making these maps from the time that Texas was first spied in the distance. Maps are windows to the past, having a power that few other historical documents possess. Most of all, they remind us of what was—a necessary step on the road to determining what we will be.

     For more on Austin’s 1830 map, see: Castañeda & Martin, Three Manuscript Maps of Texas by Stephen F. Austin (Austin: Privately printed, 1930). Graff 117. Howes A404. Martin & Martin, p. 52 (color plate), Plate 29, p. 32: “Austin viewed his map not only as an appropriate activity for a civic-minded citizen, and a political expedient gift to the Mexican government, but also as an effective instrument for subtly advertising Texas in a way that would not alarm the Mexicans”; p. 121: “Served as a model for many subsequent productions.... The rendition of the coast significantly improved previously published attempts. The map pointed out locations of Indian tribes, `immense herds of buffalo,’ and `immense droves of wild horses,’ as well labeling prominent ridges and the crosstimbers.” Martin, “Maps of an Empresario” (SWHQ 85:4, pp. 371-400): “Tanner’s publication was apparently an immediate commercial success, and Austin was importuned by would-be colonists to furnish them with copies... The first map to achieve wide circulation and credibility, and it appeared on the scene in the U.S. at a time of growing public demand for information about the region.... By widely disseminating an accurate depiction of Texas at a pivotal time in the history of the region, Austin initiated the modern period of Texas cartography. He deserves recognition for his contributions to the cartography of Texas commensurate with that he has long received for his efforts in its colonization.” Streeter 1115: “This is one of the great Texas maps”; p. 329 (listing the six most important maps for a Texas collection): “The map of Texas I most prize is [that of] Stephen F. Austin, Philadelphia, 1830. This, by the founder of present-day Texas, shows on a large scale, and for the first time, the result of American emigration into Texas.” Schwartz & Ehrenberg, color plate 154 & p. 253.

     Dr. Kelsey (Engraved Prints of Texas, 1554-1900, p. 7) describes Moore’s book and its engravings as one of the most important illustrated books of Texas. Streeter states the same and comments on the engraved plates:

The eight plates, with the views of the missions and towns of Texas as they were around the year 1840, make the first or 1840 edition a most important Texas book. There are surprisingly few books entered in this bibliography with actual, rather than imaginary, illustrations of Texas places. The earlier Visit to Texas, New York, 1834, has four plates, but two of them are sporting scenes, early for illustrations in books of hunting and sport, but not peculiar to Texas. The two views in the Visit local to Texas, “Mr. Neil’s estate near Brazoria,” and “Road through a Cane-brake,” are hardly as interesting as the views here of towns and missions.

     Exactly what constitute the earliest engravings (as opposed to lithographs) of Texas remains in question. One may go back to López de Gómara’s La historia de las Indias (Anvers, 1554) and suggest a wood cut in that work illustrating a buffalo as first seen by Cabeza de Vaca and his party, the first Europeans to travel across Texas (Kelsey, Fig. 1.1). Dr. Kelsey has suggested another early image, the heraldic emblems on the woodcut title page of Cabeza de Vaca’s La Relación (Fig. 1.2). There are a few scattered candidates from the seventeenth century up to the early years of the nineteenth century, from the murder of La Salle in Texas to a portrait of Zebulon Pike to highly romanticized images of Champ d’Asile (see, for example, Item 107 herein). However, those engraved images were made by artists or engravers who never actually visited Texas, and some are not scenes of Texas per se, such as the portrait of Pike or the title page to Cabeza de Vaca. Streeter lists two candidates for the earliest engravings of scenes in Texas based on actual eye-witness accounts: A Visit to Texas (New York, 1834; see Item 188 herein) and the engravings in the present work. A.B. Lawrence’s Texas in 1840 has a charming little bird’s-eye view of Austin, but it is lithographed (later editions from 1844 have what appear to be the same view, but engraved rather than lithographed).

     The Amon Carter online exhibit on Texas Bird’s Eye Views in the section “Early Texas Cities in Art” illustrates the plate of San Antonio found in Moore’s work, attributed on the engraving as “Sketched by W. Bissett.” Dr. Ron Tyler comments there:

Little is known of Bissett, but he apparently was a Scottish immigrant who came to Texas around 1839, perhaps to do the drawings that appear in Moore’s book. He later joined the Texan-Santa Fe expedition and was among those captured and imprisoned in Mexico, but he was released and returned to Texas. Bissett depicted the city from the New Braunfels road, the same sight that architect and writer Frederick Law Olmsted (1822–1903) later saw. “The city is closely-built and prominent, and lies basking on the edge of a vast plain, through which the river winds slowly off beyond where the eye can reach.”

     Dr. Kelsey notes that Bissett worked with a surveying crew in San Antonio in 1839. In the article on visual arts in Texas in the Handbook of Texas Online, it is noted in the section on “Republic of Texas” that “Most of the paintings done during the republic are either portraits or small sketches or watercolors intended for publication, primarily in immigrant guides, or for private use. At least nineteen identifiable artists entered the republic, most of them from the United States.” William Bissett is one of those nineteen artists.

     Another hint on Bissett was discovered by Dr. Ron Tyler, who notes in his unpublished research on nineteenth-century lithographs that a writer for the Texas Sentinel (Austin, November 21, 1840, p. 3, col. 1), mentions having seen a “number of beautiful drawings of scenes in Texas by Mr. William Bissett.” Dr. Tyler further discusses Bissett in a footnote relating to Hughes’ 1850 lithograph of the Alamo, noting that Hughes’ view was “not the first published picture of the famous structure, but it was the first to be lithographed from an eye-witness drawing lithograph of the Alamo” (see Item 5 herein). Dr. Tyler states: “The first published picture, ‘Ruins of the Alamo,’ appeared in Francis Moore, Jr.’s Map and Description of Texas (Philadelphia: H. Tanner, Junr. New York, Tanner & D[i]sturnell, 1840). The book contains eight plates engraved after William Bissett’s drawings.” Susan Prendergast Schoelwer, Alamo Images: Changing Perceptions of a Texas Experience (p. 44) gives priority to Bissett’s Alamo view in Moore’s book as the first published image of the Alamo and observes that it is “extremely rare, since Moore’s book evidently appeared in two editions in 1840—one with plates and one without.... Although his original drawing has not been located, several copies survive [including] a third copy, discovered in the papers of William Bollaert, which seems to confirm Bissett’s authorship of the unsigned Moore frontispiece and of other plates in the book signed by Bissett.”

     Given the importance of the Alamo engraving in Moore’s book as a cornerstone in Alamo iconography, a possible influence on Bissett is worth noting. Schoelwer (p. 29) comments that: “The earliest known post-battle view of the Alamo ruins, ca. 1838, [was] drawn by Mary Ann Adams Maverick [see Item 384 herein], wife of Declaration of Independence signer Samuel Maverick. According to her memoirs [see Item 385 herein], Maverick visited the Alamo grounds in the fall of 1838, accompanied by Alamo survivor Juana Navarro and her husband Horace Alsbury.” In a recent article entitled “The Search for the Saints” (by James Ivey with contributions by Dr. James Crisp, Kevin Young, and John Bryant), the authors comment: “The earliest known view of the Alamo to appear in print, is that published by Francis Moore, Jr. The drawing in Moore, made before 1840...is fairly obviously a poor copy of Mary Maverick’s painting.” For a re-evaluation of Schoelwer’s previous attribution of the Alamo engraving to Bissett, see Schoelwer’s article “The Artist’s Alamo: A Reappraisal of Pictorial Evidence, 1836-1850,” SWHQ 91:4, pp. 403-456:

Pictorial materials constitute a rich but generally untapped vein in Alamo research.... Pictorial materials can provide extensive insights into the historic place, the battle, and the legend subsequently evolving around them. For Texans, the Alamo has become a preeminent symbolic landscape, a cultural icon, and, as geographer Donald W. Meinig has suggested, “a part of the shared set of ideas and memories and feelings which bind a people together.”

Mary Maverick’s sketch seems to have influenced at least one other contemporary view: that appearing as frontispiece in the rare illustrated edition of Francis Moore, Jr.’s Map and Description of Texas (1840). Entitled Ruins of the Alamo, this is the earliest known view of the Alamo to appear in print. Although previously attributed to William Bissett, the unsigned frontispiece appears on further examination to be much more closely related to Maverick’s view.... Only the skylines of the two buildings differ from those in Maverick’s sketch, and these do not resemble any other known view....

The previously unrecognized relationship between the Maverick and Moore views reverses the author’s earlier attribution of the latter to Bissett.... Although two of the views in Moore’s volume are credited to Bissett, the Alamo and four others are anonymous, and the visual similarities to Maverick’s view seems quite conclusive. As co-owner of the Telegraph and Texas Register during the Republic, Moore certainly would have had an opportunity to become acquainted with the Mavericks. Since the Maverick view cannot be firmly dated, it is of course possible to argue an inverse relationship, suggesting that Maverick could have copied either from Moore’s published view or a lost original of it. This hypothesis seems to complicate the case unnecessarily, however. Moore’s book, published on the East Coast, was intended primarily for potential emigrants, not Texan readers, and the illustrated edition, judging by surviving copies, achieved only limited distribution. Furthermore, several features of the Maverick sketch suggest firsthand observations.... Barring further evidence to the contrary, the most plausible hypothesis remains that...an original, on-site view, drawn by Maverick and inspired by her documented 1838 visit, was shortly thereafter copied by, or for, Moore. Unfortunately, no other artworks by Maverick are known to have survived.

     The other historic engravings in Moore’s book illustrate missions and towns, some of which are exquisite little bird’s-eye views, including an bucolic scene near Austin by Bissett, an image seldom reprinted in modern works (perhaps due to its rarity). Six simple structures are set among a grove of trees in the gently rolling Hill Country. To the left the sun shines brightly above a hill top with rays extending heavenward. To the right a light rain shower appears to be falling from misty clouds above. If color had been applied, surely there would be a rainbow. Here Austin is shown in its infancy, having been founded in June, 1839. Moore’s text accompanying the image declares (p. 130): “The site of Austin is remarkably beautiful, and the surrounding country presents some of the most picturesque scenery in America.”

     In the preface to this emigrant guide, Moore emphasizes that he has resided in Texas for several years and his descriptions are based on personal observation, making his work more valuable. After a general overview of the history and resources of Texas, Moore provides straight-forward, honest information on each of the thirty-two counties of Texas. He acknowledges that some of the essays are modified versions of articles that first appeared in the Telegraph and Texas Register. Several insightful suggestions are made by Moore, such as the second earliest mention of steamboat traffic on Caddo Lake. Moore assures the prospective emigrant that a much better class of emigrants is rapidly augmenting the population, but acknowledges: “It must be admitted that in this republic as every where else, there are many vicious and corrupt men. Around the grog-shops here, as around those in every section of the United States, base and groveling wretches congregate as reptiles around a putrid lake. These miserable beings who are as corroding cancers to the community in which they reside, however hasten their own destruction. The ‘poisoned chalice’ they daily and almost hourly elevate to their lips soon hurries them to the grave; and as they silently disappear one by one, society feels relieved from a noxious and loathsome burthen.” Moore assures his readers that the report of “many powerful and formidable tribes of Indians” is a “gross error,” with the single exception of the “Commanches,” the most numerous tribe, who can muster a thousand warriors. The other tribes he characterizes as “too weak and too imbecile to excite fear.” The immense droves of mustangs and vast herds of buffalo are described de rigueur. Sure, Moore admits, there are a few rattlesnakes and water moccasins and some scorpions are found in the west with wounds inflicted no worse than a bumble bee. But such creatures are offset by the charming and curious “horned frog,” and other alluring factors, such as farming and ranging prospects, and most especially, the mineral riches waiting to be discovered by the industrious Anglo emigrant. As for fears of lawlessness and revolution, Moore pledges to the skeptical that “Stability is everywhere traced in [Texas’] political system,” and none should doubt the permanency of the government of the Republic of Texas.

     Moore is well-known in Texas history. Among other things, he left us this wonderful emigrant guide to the Republic of Texas, with historic engravings, and the epochal “Father Map of Texas” by Stephen F. Austin in its most rare and complete issue. Handbook of Texas Online (Francis Moore, Jr.):

Francis Moore, Jr. (1808-1864), newspaper editor, Houston mayor, and amateur geologist, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on April 20, 1808, the son of Dr. Francis Moore. In his youth he lost an arm in an accident. In 1828 his family moved to Livingston County, New York; he studied medicine like his father, who was a graduate of Harvard. When Moore moved to Bath, New York, around 1834, he also studied law and taught school. With his friends Jacob W. and James F. Cruger he left New York in 1836 to help Texas win independence from Mexico. He arrived in June and served as a volunteer and assistant surgeon with the Buckeye Rangers. On March 9, 1837, Moore bought an interest in the Telegraph and Texas Register from Thomas H. Borden, and in May the paper was moved from Columbia to Houston. Gail Borden, who also owned interest in the newspaper, sold his share on June 2 to Jacob Cruger. Cruger remained Moore’s partner until April 1, 1851, when Moore bought him out. Moore edited the Telegraph and Texas Register for seventeen years. In it he published government documents, excerpted popular fiction, and addressed such issues as dueling, which he argued against. He also wrote a series of articles on the natural resources of Texas, later collected and published in two editions, Map and Description of Texas (1840) and Description of Texas (1844).

Moore was thrice mayor of Houston. He was elected the city’s second mayor in 1838 and served until the summer of 1839, when he resigned and temporarily returned to New York. During his term the city approved construction of a market house, hired its first police officers, passed a city charter, and purchased a town lot and fire engine for the first fire department. In 1843 Moore won another term as mayor, and the city built the first bridge over Buffalo Bayou. Finally, during his successive terms as mayor from 1840 to 1852, Moore worked to improve the city roads, which were often flooded. He was also involved in the early business development of Houston. He was director of the Harrisburg Town Company in 1839—40. In June 1839 he was elected to the board of directors of the Harrisburg Rail Road and Trading Company, the fourth oldest railroad company in Texas, and on October 26, 1842 he was elected treasurer of the newly chartered city of Harrisburg. In 1850 he helped organize the Houston Plank Road Company, and in 1851-52 he promoted the Houston and Texas Central Railway. From November 1839 to February 1842 Moore served in the Texas Senate’s fourth, fifth, and sixth congresses as the representative from Harris, Liberty, and Galveston counties. As chairman of the committee on education, he urged the chartering of Rutersville College and proposed that geology, a particular interest of his, be included in the school’s curriculum. Moore was in favor of the annexation of Texas by the United States, and he represented Harris County at the Convention of 1845.

During his 1839 visit to New York, between his terms as mayor and senator, Moore renewed his friendship with Elizabeth Mofat Wood, a native of Bath; he married her the next year. They had nine children. In Houston, the family attended Christ Church (Episcopal), and from 1850 to 1853 Moore represented the church at the diocesan convention. In 1854 he sold his newspaper to Edward H. Cushing and moved his family to New York. In 1857 he studied geology and paleontology at the New York Geological Survey in Albany. Over the next two years he frequently returned to Texas to gather fossils and shells for the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Friends recommended Moore to head the Texas state geological survey in 1858, but Governor Hardin R. Runnels appointed Benjamin Franklin Shumard instead. Moore returned to Texas to practice law in March 1859 but spent much of his subsequent time lobbying for the position of state geologist. When Sam Houston won the 1860 gubernatorial race, Moore finally received the appointment. In the winter of 1860-61 he traveled through various counties to make observations. Based on superficial sampling of ores taken during an exploration of the Trans-Pecos region, from March through mid-June 1861, Moore came to believe the area was endowed with great mineral riches. When he returned to Austin he discovered that the legislature had abolished his office, and the state had joined the Confederacy. An ardent Unionist, Moore went north to Brooklyn. He moved to Minnesota in August 1863 to explore the copper mining potential of Lake Superior. He died, probably of appendicitis, in Duluth, Minnesota, on September 1, 1864. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn.

($200,000-300,000)

Sold. Hammer: $220,000.00; Price Realized: $264,000.00

Auction 22 Abstracts

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