AUCTION 23

 
 

“The first significant collection of charts exclusively of the American Coasts to be published in England” (Verner)

When the Mississippi River Was in Texas

 
Click thumbnails to open zoomable images.

8. [ATLAS]. ENGLISH PILOT. The English Pilot. The Fourth Book. Describing the West-India Navigation, from Hudson’s Bay to the River Amazones. Particularly Delineating The Coasts, Capes, Headlands, Rivers, Bays, Roads, Havens, Harbours, Streights, Rocks, Sands, Shoals, Banks, Depths of Water, and Anchorage, with all the Islands therein; as Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Barbadoes, Antigua, Bermudas, Porto Rico, and the Rest of the Caribee and Bahama Islands. Also A new Description of Newfoundland, New England, New York, East and West New Jersey, Dellawar Bay, Virginia, Maryland, Carolina, &c. Shewing The Courses and Distances from one Place to another; the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, the Setting of the Tides and Currents, &c. With many other Things necessary to be known in Navigation. The Whole being much Enlarged and Corrected, with the Additions of several New Charts and Descriptions. By the Information of divers able Navigators of our own and other Nations. London: Printed for Mount and Page, on Tower-Hill, 1784. [1-3] 4-68 pp. (printed in double column), 23 engraved maps (listed below): 19 inserted leaves of engraved plates (some folding, some with more than one map per leaf), 4 large engraved maps in text, over 200 woodcuts in text (profiles, plats, plans, charts, maps). Tall folio (48 x 32 cm), original brown calf, covers with rolled single borders. Spine partially perished, moderate edge wear, corners bumped, mild stain and scuffing with small losses, hinges cracked. Mild browning to text (heavier to blank margins of first two leaves), pp. 39-40 detached and with some wrinkles (but no losses), p. 45-46 loose. For the most part the maps are very good to fine (a few minor tears and splits without losses; Newfoundland map misfolded). Contemporary ink ownership inscription on upper pastedown: “Silas Booth his Book bought in New York pr[ice] 25s”; a few other scattered contemporary computations and note “Apl 1 1797 Fort Newfoundland.” Possibly Silas Booth (1763-1819) who was born and died in Stratford, Fairfield, Connecticut (see p. 519, Record of Connecticut Men in the Military and Naval Service...). The English Pilot in all editions, by its very nature and hard use in demanding situations, is quite rare.

Engraved Nautical Charts on Inserted Sheets (Some Folding)

Note on publishers’ attributions: In 1784 the publishers of the English Pilot were William and John Mount and Thomas Page. In some cases hereinafter John Mount’s first name is abbreviated “I” on the engraved map. See Tooley’s Dictionary of Mapmakers (revised edition)Vol. III, pp. 287-288 for the intricate history of the Mount family firm. On p. 288 is the entry for the publishers of the 1784 edition. Most of the maps have dense rhumb lines.

[1]  A New and Correct Chart of the North Part of America from Newfoundland to Hudson’s Bay Sold by W. & J. Mount and T. Page on Tower Hill London. Primitive oval cartouche at top right with two sparsely clad Native Americans—male at left with arrow and female with bow at right; fox and beaver at center. Compass rose. Neat line to neat line: 43.6 x 55.5 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xix, #21. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#2). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #198 (final entry): “Covers the area from Hudson Bay to Cape Sable. Shows numerous bays and inlets, the Grand Banks, banks and shoals of the Coast of Nova Scotia.” Follows p. 4.

[2]  A New and Generall Chart for the West Indies of E[dward]. Wright’s Projection, vut. Mercators Chart Sold by W. and J. Mount and T. Page on Tower Hill London. [Far right toward center margin, text in box commencing] To find the distance of two Places in this Chart....” Ornate shell and botanical cartouche at upper left. Compass with fleur-de-lis at center. Neat line to neat line: 45.2 x 56.7 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #32. Phillips, Atlases 1171(#3). This was one of the updated charts toward the end of the publication sequence, and it appears to be quite scarce. The chart covers the entire West Indies and part of the surrounding land areas, showing straits and passages, navigational hazards, anchorages, soundings, and a few place names. Describes West Indies navigation from Hudson’s Bay to the Amazon River extending across the Atlantic (between N 55° and S 10°) to Ireland, England, Spain, West Africa, and the Azores, Canary, and Cape Verde islands. The Gulf of Mexico is shown in its entirety, including Florida and Louisiana; also shown are Bay del Spiritu Santo, Isle Maracscagenses(?), Misisipi River, B. St. Louis, Panuco, etc. Jack Jackson in Flags along the Coast (Book Club of Texas, 1995), p. 53 explains why the Mississippi delta (“Misisipi River) is located on the Texas coast: “Thornton, while using Bond’s depiction of the Mississippi Delta, ignored his correct name for it, instead labeling a minor river on the Texas coast as the Misisippi.” Precedes p. 5.

[3]  A New and Accurate Chart of the vast Atlantic or Western Ocean, including the Sea Coast of Europe and Africa on the East and the opposite Coast of the Continent of America, & the West India Islands on the West; extending from the Equator to 59 Degrees North Latitude. Drawn from late Surveys, & most approved modern Maps and Charts; the whole being regulated by Numerous Astronomical Observations. By Eman: Bowen Geographer to His Majesty. Sold by J. Mount & T: Page, Tower Hill. [text at top right] This Chart was drawn and compiled from the concurring of the existing surveys, and most approved modern Maps.... We have derived some assistance from the Chart of the Western Ocean published in France in 1738, by the order of the Comte de Maurepas, as also from Monsr. De Anville’s Map of North America, lately published at Paris, and republished at London in 1751 with Improvements.... Neat line to neat line: 58.8 x 77 cm. Includes Hudson’s Bay, Labrador or “North Britain,” Atlantic Coast to south of the Isthmus of Darien; the east extends from Great Britain to the Tooth Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast and Benin. Depths shown by soundings in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Shallow areas shown by stippling. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #62. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#4). Follows p. 8.

[4]  The Harbour of Casco Bay and Islands Adjacent. Simple shell and botanical cartouche at lower left. At lower right: Fancy compass with text: A Scale of English Miles. Lower right corner: Sold by J. Mount & T. Page on Tower Hill London. Neat line to neat line:43 x 54 cm. Casco Bay, Maine, from Cape Elizabeth to Shapeleys Isle and Small Point, Maine. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, variant of #34, with shorter title as shown. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#6). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #841 (listing the 1755 edition and subsequent appearances, including this edition: “Shows rocks, shoals, ledges, anchorages, soundings, the main channel into the harbor, towns and houses along the Coast, ‘Casco Fort built by Col. Runamer,’ Fort George, an Irish settlement on the Kennebec River, and relief. The chart was first published n 1720 by Mount, Page, and Company.” Follows p. 12.

[5]  A New and Correct Chart of the Coast of New Foundland from Cape Raze to Cape Bonavista, with Chebucto Harbour in Nova Scotia Done from the latest Observations. Sold by W & I Mount & T Page on Tower Hill. Bar scales in English and French leagues at top left. Neat line to neat line: approximately 42 x 191 cm. [small inset map with compass and ornate border at mid-left] St. John’s Harbour; [inset map at upper right with scale] Chebucto Harbour in Nova Scotia done from the Latest Observations. Small town plan of Halifax with structures and compass rose below. Two compass roses on map proper. Neat line to neat line: 16.4 x 23 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #53. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#7). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #648 (lists editions from 1755 to 1789, including this 1784 edition): “Shows numerous bays and inlets, rocks, soundings, some anchorages, coastal islands, place-names.” Follows p. 16.

[6]  A Chart of the South-East Coast of Newfoundland Printed for Mount and Page Tower-Hill London. Nautical Leagues each equal to 3 Miles. Neat line to neat line: 47.2 x 60 cm. Shows Placentia Bay and most of the Avalon Peninsula. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #63. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#8). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #676 (listing editions from 1780 to 1789, including this 1784 appearance): “Chart of the waters around the Avalon Peninsula. Shows channels, anchorages, shoals, rocks, soundings, the type bottom, numerous place-names, and relief.” Precedes p. 21.

[7]  A Chart of New York Harbour with the Banks, Soundings and Sailing marks from the most accurate Surveys & Observations. English Miles [scale] The Light House on the Sandy Hook is in Latitude 40.26 N. and Longitude 74.10 W. from Greenwich [title within oval at top left and scale below]. Neat line to neat line: 60.5 x 46 cm. Relief shown by hachures. Depths shown by gradient tints and soundings. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #64. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#10). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1236 (citing this 1784 edition): “Competition from The Atlantic Neptune and an increased demand for accurate surveys of the American coast forced the publishers of The English Pilot to update several charts in their atlas. This improved chart of New York Harbor shows many new shoals, channels, soundings, navigational sightings, and landmarks, but it contains less information on towns in the area.” Isaac Newton Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909.... (New York: Robert H. Hood, 1915, Vol. I, pp. 263-264) in his entry for A New Map of the Harbour of New-York published by William Bradford in 1735 provides a short discussion of the evolution of the English Pilot map of New York Harbour: “Another map similar in extent appeared in the English Pilot in 1737 with the imprint of Page & Mount, on Tower Hill, London. Copies of this map exist with the date 1731 below the title, from which it seems evident that it was issued separately at that date. In the succeeding editions of the Pilot, issued in1749, the same chart bears the name of Tiddeman. It was reissued with this imprint and without alteration down to 1749, the plate growing fainter and fainter, till in 1773, it was retouched, the water shaded, and the imprint altered to I. Mount, etc.” It has been stated that this New York Harbor map first appeared in 1784, but Verner in Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot, the Fourth Book. With Special References to the Charts of Virginia... (p. 52) states that upon Tiddeman’s return to London from New York in 1728, he gave or sold the New York map to Mount and Page who used it from 1729 to 1794. Verner also notes the long-lived, frequently revised ancestor to this map was first used in 1781. Preceding p. 24.

[8]  Virginia, Maryland, Pennsilvania, East & West New Jersey. Sold by Jn: Mount & Thos Page Tower Hill. [cartouche with droll face and strap work at top right] [lower left] A Scale of 15 English Leagues.... Engraved inserted sheet. Neat line to neat line: 50.7 x 79.5 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xix, #16. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#11). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #719: “Chart of the Atlantic coast from Staten Island to the vicinity of Cape Henry. Shows soundings, harbors, shoals, rivers, counties, and a few towns.” Verner, Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot, the Fourth Book. With Special References to the Charts of Virginia, pp. 39-40: “Plate II, State 2... The imprint has been changed as indicated and the title has been altered from Jarsey to Jersey. The same change in spelling has been made in the appropriate place on the body of the map. In the imprint the ‘g’ in Page has a much longer swash tail than in State 1. The shoals and sand bars have been stippled with a coarse dot. The dotted rhumb line below the Y in West New Jersey has been completed to the north border of the plate.” Preceding p. 25.

[9]  A Draught of Virginia from the Capes to York in York River and to Kuiquotan or Hamton in James River by Mark Tiddeman Sold By W. & I. Mount & T. Page on Tower Hill London. [title in ornate shell cartouche at lower left]. Engraved inserted sheet. Neat line to neat line: 45.5 x 58 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #43. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#12). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1492 (citing 1755 edition and subsequently the present edition): “Chart of lower Chesapeake Bay and part of the York River and James River. Shows extensive soundings, shoals, creeks, inlets and landmarks. Includes pictorial representations of the towns of Norfolk, Hampton, Yorktown, Williamsburg, and Gloucester.” Verner, Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot, the Fourth Book. With Special References to the Charts of Virginia, pp. 55-69, Plate 1, State 2 on p. 55, noting various changes, such as “Horse Shooe” corrected to “Horse Shoe”, fleur-de-lis on the compass rose at right border omitted, etc. In addition to attribution in title to Mark Tiddeman, Verner (p. 51) notes the clue connecting the map to Tiddeman, who served as Master of the Tartar when she sailed from Plymouth to patrol the American coast: At far left margin below Cape Charles is a note: “Here the Tartar lost her Anchor Octobr 17th 1726.” This navigational chart, which is oriented to the north, focuses on places such as New Point Comfort, Willoby’s Point, Tooes Pt., etc. Settlements include Williamsburg, York, Gloucester, Norfolk, etc. After p. 28.

[10] Three maps on one sheet: [1] A New Mapp of the Island of St. Christophers being an actual Survey taken by Mr. Andrew Norwood, Surveyr. Genl. Sold by W. Mount & T. Page on Tower Hill London [title in ornate botanical cartouche at upper right, with scale below in English miles]; [2] A New Mapp of the Island Guardalupa [small decorative cartouche with scale at lower center]; [3] A New Mapp of the Island Martineca [small decorative cartouche with scale at lower center]. Three compass roses. Neat line to neat line: 43.4 x 53 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xix, #27. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#13). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1987: “Shows parishes, churches, fortifications, roads, rivers, and relief. Insets: ‘A New Mapp of the Island Martineca’ and ‘A New Mapp of the Island Guardalupa.’”Preceding p. 32.

[11] A Draught of South Carolina and Georgia from Sewee to St. Estaca by Andrew Hughes. Sold by W. Mount and T. Page on Tower-hill London. [title within ornate shell cartouche at upper right]. Scale in English and French in rectangular box at lower left, two compass roses, extensive engraved text at top: Instructions for the coast of South Carolina Georgia and the Coast of St. Augustin.... Neat line to neat line: 45.5 x 83 cm. Includes names of islands and covers the coast from South Carolina and Georgia to St. Augustine, Florida. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #61. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#14). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1399 (includes 1784 edition): “Shows the Sea Islands, forts, the towns of St. Augustine, Savannah, and Charleston. marshlands, rivers, anchorages, shoals, soundings, currents, tide marks, and relief. Many islands are named.” Preceding p. 33.

[12] A Correct Chart of the Caribbee Islands. Sold by Mount and Page on Tower Hill London. [title within ornate cartouche at upper center]. Scale in English and French below cartouche, compass rose. Neat line to neat line: 43.6 x 52.5 cm. Re-engraving with changes such as “S. John de Port Rico” replaced by “Porto Rico” and “S. Joan I.” renamed “Aves or Birds I.” English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #54. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#15). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1960n & #1961: “Covers the West Indian Islands from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and part of Venezuela. Showing a few soundings, shoals, rocks, place-names, forts and relief.” Preceding p. 36.

[13] A Correct Chart of Hispaniola with the Windward Passage Humbly Dedicated to Mr. John Machin Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College by C. Price Hydrographer to the King [within ornate banner and scroll cartouche]. Scale in bordered box at lower left in English, French, and Spanish Leagues and Degrees. [Lower left above neat line] Sold by Jno. Mount & Thos. Page on Tower Hill London. Neat line to neat line: 47 x 59.5 cm. Two compass roses. Located are eastern Cuba, Hispaniola, and adjacent islands to the north. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #50. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#16). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1848 (noting 1784 edition and commenting on the map in general): “Shows channels and navigational hazards around the island, numerous place-names, ‘the Line Division between the Spaniard and French,’ the quarters, roads, churches, forts, and relief.” Preceding p. 41.

[14]Five maps on one sheet: [1] A Draught of the West End of the Island of Porto Rico and the Island of Zachee [title within double-line box at center that includes scale; also in the map proper are two small elevations of the Island of Zachee at left and right of main title]; [2] A Draught of the Island of Beata on the South side of Hispaniola;[3] The West End of the Island of Henneago;[4] Platform Bay on the South Side of Cape Nicholas;[5] A Draught of Sam Bay, on the South Side of Hispaniola. Neat line to neat line of map proper: 47 x 59.5 cm. Shown at upper left is Aguado Bay, conjectured by some to be where Columbus first landed. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #56. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#17). After p. 44.

[15] Two maps on one sheet: [1] A New & Correct Chart of Cuba, Streights of Bahama, Windward Passage, the Current through the Gulf of Florida, with the Soundings &c. By an Officer in the Navy, Sold by Mount & Page on Towerhill [title at upper right and compass rose]; [2] A Plan of the Harbour & Town of Havana, Taken on the Spot by an Officer in his Majesty’s Navy [inset of Havana at upper left, with title on land, and reference letters A-G for towns and harbour landings and scale of one English mile] Neat line to neat line: 46 x 64.5 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #57. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#18).Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1731 (citing this 1784 imprint): “Shows currents, navigational hazards, route of navigation, the Spanish and English locations for the Tropic of Cancer, place names, and relief. Also shows parishes and towns on the island of Jamaica. [The] inset [of Havana] shows extensive soundings, forts, batteries, roads, a wharf, a church, and ‘The Great Moro Castle.’” Precedes p. 45.

[16] A New and Correct Draught of the Bay of Matanzas on ye North side of ye Island Cuba, done from a Survey by Robt. Pearson [title at top left]. A scale of four English or one Dutch... [at lower right]. Fleur-de-lis at top. Neat line to neat line: 23 x 30.7 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #47. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#19). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1825 (second state with year removed, shoals added and stippled, and with additional stippling to wooded areas): “Shows anchorages, shoals, nautical hazards, sounds, and rivers. The Castle of Matanzas with its gate and sentry box, the town, a bridge, a snuff mill, plantations, the best watering, and wooded areas are also included.” Precedes p. 49.

[17] A New & Correct Chart, of the Island of Jamaica. With its Bays, Harbours, Rocks, Soundings &c Sold by J. Mount & T. Page on Towerhill. [title within fancy botanical cartouche at upper right with scale below and compass rose at lower left]. Neat line to neat line: 45.5 x 66.7 cm. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #58. Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1915 & 1922: Notes that the map was “originally drawn by cartographer and engraver John Thornton for the first edition of The English Pilot, Fourth Book, published in 1689 [and] continued to appear in subsequent editions of the atlas and unchanged until 1767. It shows bays and inlets, coastal landmarks, shoals, soundings, and rivers. St. Jago de la Vega, later Spanish Town, is pictorially represented.” Phillips, Atlases 1171 (#20). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1922 describe the Jamaica map, which was reworked beginning in 1767 and list the later editions which, among other things, do not have the inset of Port Royal. Preceding p. 53.

[18] Three maps on one sheet: [1] A Chart of the Coast of Guayana, from the Entrance of the River Orinoco. (in the Lat. 8o. 30’ N Long. 61o. W. from London) to the Entrance of the River Amazones, By Waddington [in delicate foliage cartouche at top right with scale below; two large insets left below, both with scales], Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #2145 citing the 1767 edition and noting the 1784 edition; [2] The River Orinoco from the Entrance thereof to St. Thomas’s; [3] The River of Surinam and Places adjacent. Neat line to line: 46.5 x 63.5 cm. Two compass roses and two fleurs-de-lis. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #59. Phillips, Atlases 1171 [#21].

[19] A New and Correct Chart of the Trading Part of the West Indies Sold by I. Mount & T. Page on Tower-hill London [title in square box at top right, two compass roses, scale in English and French leagues in narrow panel at lower left]. Neat line to neat line: 46.5 x 80.5 cm. Second state with two compass roses. Shows lands around the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean area, names cities and rivers, relief shown by soundings. English Pilot (facsimile edition), p. xx, #42. Phillips, Atlases #22. Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1721 (cites the 1755 edition and subsequently notes the 1784 edition): “Drawn for the 1725 edition of The English Pilot, this chart covers the entire West Indies and part of the surrounding land areas. Shows straits and passages, navigational hazards, anchorages, and a few place names.” Jack Jackson, Flags along the Coast, comments on the origin of this important map of the Gulf of Mexico, pp. 46-47:

Sea charts have generally received short shrift in studies of North American discovery and exploration, yet many continental maps take their coastlines directly from the maritime maps that were in circulation when the larger maps were made.... It has somehow escaped notice that one of the most enduring maps of the Gulf Coast to appear in English maritime atlases during the eighteenth century is a very close copy of Enríquez Barroto’s manuscript map, or another taken from it.... However the map came into English hands, it was only a short time before it passed to the commercial map trade. This rapid transition can be measured against John Thornton’s Atlas Maritimus published in 1700.... Mount and Page often collaborated with John Thornton.... One such joint venture was The English Pilot: Fourth Book, originally released in 1689.... It was in the third edition [1706] that the Enríquez Barroto/Bisente prototype unmistakably surfaced.... Despite Mount and Page’s 1702 Chart of the Bay of Mexico and their close association with John Thornton, it seems that Thornton was responsible for bringing this radically new Gulf chart to the British trade...on variations issued by Mount and Page in The English Pilot: Fourth Book after Thornton’s death in 1708. John’s son Samuel, however, continued to issue the map independently, its title unchanged except for the substitution of his own name for his father’s. John Thornton’s will bequeathed to Samuel all his ‘Maps, charts, copys, instruments, copper engraved plates and all other things belonging to my calling.’ The West Indies chart was one of them, accounting for Mount and Pages’s use of their own Chart of the Bay of Mexico in the English Pilot. But Samuel died two years later, and Mount and Page must have acquired control of some of his late father’s work, for their 1725 edition contains a re-engraving of Thornton’s Enríquez Barroto/Bisente chart with the simplified title and dated 1722.

See Jackson’s Plates 18, 19, and 26. One of the peculiarities of this map is that along the Texas coast at Matagorda Bay, the Mississippi River is shown flowing into the Bay, a mistake the better-informed Delisle had corrected decades earlier on his own maps of the region (see Delisle herein). Precedes p. 61.

Engraved Nautical Charts used as Text Illustrations

[20] Island of St. Peters [and] Columba I. Scale of one mile at lower left; compass rose at lower right. Neat line to neat line (map only): 31 x 25 cm. Above engraved map is descriptive letterpress text, “A Description of the Island of St. Peters, by Capt. William Taverner.” This map of present-day St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands appeared in the 1784 edition noted in Phillips, Atlases 1171. English Pilot (facsimile), p. xx, #38. Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #692 (lists editions between 1755 and 1789, including this 1784 appearance). Text engraving on p. 20.

[21] Barbados Latt. 13: North. Scale at lower right. Compass rose. Neat line to neat line: 28.9 x 26.5 cm. English Pilot (facsimile), p. xx, #39. Phillips, Atlases, 1171. Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #2086 (listing 1755 and subsequent editions, including this 1784 printing): “Navigational chart for the coast of Barbados. Shows bays and inlets, navigational hazards, landmarks, and towns.” Text engraving on p. 28.

[22] A Large Draft of the Island Antegua [oval cartouche at top left]. Neat line to neat line: 26 x 32 cm. Running title at top: A Description of the Caribbee Islands. English Pilot (facsimile), p. xx, #41. Phillips, Atlases 1171. Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #1996 (citing many editions, including this 1784 edition). Text engraving on p. 32.

[23] Untitled map of the Bermudas with scale at lower left. Neat line to neat line: 29.3 x 22.3 cm [upper left oval]. English Pilot (facsimile), p. xx, #40. Phillips, Atlases 1171 (p. 52). Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789 #2148 (citing many editions, including this 1784 edition): “Shows islands, bays and inlets, forts, navigational hazards, and a ‘Flemish Wreck.’ The chart is extended in the upper right corner to include the east end of the chain of islands. An accompanying description cautions: ‘I would advise everyone to take special Care upon this Coast, for there are abundances of Rocks which are very subject to tempestuous Weather.’” Text engraving on p. 52.

Woodcut Maps in Text Noted by Phillips

[24] Tobago Road. 14 x 17 cm. Phillips, Atlases 1171. P. 27.

[25] A Draught of the Bay of Honda. 16.5 x 15 cm. Phillips, Atlases 1171. P. 46.

     New, updated edition of the long-lived English Pilot, Fourth Book. This edition includes some of the important updated sea charts, such as New York Harbour [7, above], Hughes’ South Carolina and Georgia [11, above], etc. The first edition of The English Pilot was published in London in 1689 for W. Fisher and J. Thornton; by 1789, thirty-seven editions had appeared. The Fourth Book covers the coasts of the eastern side of America from Hudson Bay to the mouth of the Amazon. Brown, The Story of Maps, p. 146: “England’s answer to the Dutch monopoly on charts and sea atlases came with the publication of The English Pilot...a strong bid for a share of the chart publishing trade.... The government made it even stronger by forbidding further importation of Dutch charts and atlases into England.”Cumming, British Maps of Colonial America, p. 39: “For British trading in North America and for the colonists there, the publication of The English Pilot: The Fourth Book must have been a godsend. For the first time an English sea atlas presented charts of the whole eastern seacoast of North America. To modern eyes the charts are crude and sparse of detail; but to the navigator of American waters in that period, it was his Bible. Whatever its shortcomings, there was really no substitute, no real competitor, for over sixty years.” English Short Title Catalogue N7822. Martin & Martin, p. 19: “The need of British seamen for navigational aids in their own language was served by The English Pilot, [which] revealed a steady increase in the knowledge of the Gulf coast.” McCorkle, New England in Early Printed Maps (mentions predecessors of some of the maps of New England in this work). Verner, Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot, the Fourth Book #35 (noting 64 different chart titles from the editions he examined): “The ‘English Pilot’ series was first initiated by John Seller, but ‘The Fourth Book’ was originally issued under the partnership of William Fisher and John Thornton... [It was] the first great atlas of wholly English origin to deal exclusively with American waters.” Verner in introduction to the facsimile edition of The English Pilot, The Fourth Book, London, 1689 #35. Tooley, “English Maritime Books” 24. For more on Mount and Page, see: Thomas R. Adams, The Non-Cartographical Maritime Works Published by Mount and Page (Occasional Publications of the Bibliographical Society, Number 1, 1985).

     Verner in introduction to the facsimile edition of The English Pilot, The Fourth Book:

The English Pilot was the first major sea-atlas produced in England [and] the Fourth Book was the first wholly English sea-atlas of American waters.... Mount and Page continued it in print for over 100 years.... For nearly a century the chart trade had been dominated by Dutch publishers, and chart making by skilled Dutch mariners. In this period English mariners possessed the requisite mathematical knowledge for accurate mapmaking or the cartographical skills essential to accurate chart construction.... Even if the coast of England was charted by the Dutch; even if some English pilots did construct their own draughts, these “were few and in manuscript no authority and little circulation” (Lyman)....

[John] Seller’s proposal for a “Sea Waggoner” resulted in the production of The English Pilot, which consisted of five separate volumes with a common generic title.... Each book or volume has its own independent publishing history and appeared in numerous editions. The five separate books constitute a set only by virtue of the general title, and under that title The English Pilot is the first great sea-atlas produced in England. Of the five books, the fourth had the longest publication history and is the best known.... We may hazard a guess that Seller intended to bring The Fourth Book out ahead of schedule in order to satisfy public interest in America.... Maps of American interest included those of Carolina, Pennsylvania, and a great four-of the middle colonies which Thornton reduced to two sheets for The Fourth Book.... In spite of the dated material which it contained, The Fourth Book was sufficiently in demand to justify thirty-seven legitimate editions from 1689 to 1794 and three pirated editions....

The illustrative matter in The Fourth Book is printed from woodblocks as well as from copper plates.... During the history of the volume the charts underwent numerous changes and the maximum number found in any addition is twenty-four. Over 64 different chart titles have been recorded from the editions examined. Some of these are new charts added to the work at various times, while others are merely re-dash workings of plates.... Nearly every chart that appeared in The Fourth Book will be found to have been re-worked at one time or another. Under Thornton’s direction, plate changes were introduced to alter geographical content or to ensure that the plate imprint was correct. Mount and Page, however, appear to have altered plates solely to increase useful life and rarely altered imprints on maps to reflect any changes in the composition of the firm unless the plate was being re-worked otherwise. Only when nothing suitable was available would they reproduce a new plate....

The English Pilot, taken as a whole, has a long and complex publishing history that illustrates the development of the chart trade in England during its formative period. Of the five separate books or volumes which form the complete of The English Pilot, The Fourth Book was the most successful and had the longest continuous run of editions.... No one publisher or mapmaker was in a position to produce any work as complex as The English Pilot.... The demand for The Fourth Book remained steady in spite of its growing obsolescence, and so long as demand continued at a suitable level, there was no pressure for change. In any event, The Fourth Book remains one of the great examples of the chart trade in England with a long publishing history for a simple atlas that has rarely been equalled.

For Texas collectors, two of the maps show the Mississippi River flowing into the Gulf of Mexico at Matagorda Island. (See Maps [2] and [19] herein.) As Jack Jackson explained, “Thornton, while using Bond’s depiction of the Mississippi Delta, ignored his correct name for it, instead labeling a minor river on the Texas coast as the Mississippi.”

($20,000-40,000)

Sold. Hammer: $20,000.00; Price Realized: $24,500.00.

Auction 23 Abstracts

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