AUCTION 23

 
 

First Separately Published Atlas Devoted to the Americas

With Landmark Maps of America, including Texas, California, & Alaska

 
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15. [ATLAS]. WYTFLIET, Corneille & Giovanni Antonio Magini. Histoire Vniverselle des Indes, Orientales et Occidentales. Divisée en Devx Livres Le Premier par Corn[e]ille Wytfliet: Le second par Ant[onio] M[agini] & Avtres Historiens. A Douay: Aux despens de François Fabri, 1605. [4], 1-126, [2]; [Second part: Livre Second de L’Histoire Vniversaelle des Indies Representant L’Entiere Histoire dv Decovvrement des Indes Orientales...] 1-20, 20-20, 21-24, 24-24, 25-52, [4 (of 8), index] pp., elaborately engraved title page (included in collation), 19 (of 20) folded copper-engraved maps (lacks East Indies map in second part), woodcut initials, head- and tail-pieces. Title page is that of the Latin edition with a paste-over cancel slip with the new imprint. Folio (28.5 x 19.5 cm), contemporary dark brown calf, spine gilt-lettered and with raised bands, edges tinted red. Binding: hinges open but holding, worn, wormed, and rubbed, but sound. Interior: Title page abraded with minor loss of image at bottom, interior somewhat browned, some leaves, including title page, trimmed at top with minor loss, scattered dampstains, 2B2 and o2 with small piece excised from lower blank margins. Maps: generally very good to very fine and in strong impressions. Five maps supplied from another copy and may be identified by the fact that the edges are not tinted red.

Maps

All maps measure approximately neat line to neat line: 23 x 29 cm. The atlas first came out in 1597. The maps in this first French edition are from the same copper plates, with only very minor changes, primarily to titles.

[1]  Vtrivsque Hemispherii Delineatio. World map, double hemispherical world map, title within strapwork cartouche at top center, stipple-engraved seas; below the two hemispheres Atlas holds the two parts of the world. Follows p. 66. The World Encompassed #204. Moreland & Bannister, Antique Maps p. 251 (illustrated) & p. 254. Shirley, Plate 165 & #207 (citing editions of 1597, 1598, 1603, 1605, 1607. 1611, and 1615): “Reduced from Rumold Mercator’s map of ten years earlier.” Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici: 371:11:1 (illustrated 0001:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast #191 (p. 293): “Curiously enough on this map the longitude of California is only about 40°. Wytfliet apparently had to shorten this in order to get America on the hemisphere. No names are shown on the coast, only to the north: El Streto de Anian and Anian Regnum.”

[2]  Chica Sive Patagonica Et Avstralis Terra. 1597. Early state with printed date. Divided into two sections, the top showing Patagonia and Strait of Magellan, the lower showing Antarctica. Title within strapwork cartouche at lower left, illustration of [Magellan’s?] ship at upper right, top map with moiré-patterned seas, lower map with stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 70. JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-110-000. Schilder, Australia Unveiled, pp. 18-19. Tooley, The Mapping of Australia and Antarctica #1439. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:2 (illustrated 9950:371.1, with date). This map and the text of the book have led to unsolved speculation that Wytfliet had knowledge of two pre-Dutch voyages since he knew of a strait between New Guinea and the southern land eight years before Luis Vaez de Torres approached it from the east.

[3]  Chili Provincia Amplissima. Coast of Chile from Camana to Valdivia and the Rio de Palominos or present-day Rio Calle-Calle, with many towns located along the coast. Title within elaborate strapwork cartouche at lower left, stipple-engraved seas, rich grey toned background. Follows p. 78. JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-112-000. Phillips, America, p. 233. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:3 (illustrated 9920:371, Variant B with “Platæ Pars” at top right).

[4]  Plata Americæ Provincia. Part of South America, including Rio de la Plata region and its tributaries, Uruguay, and interior parts of southern Brazil, Chile, and Peru. Title within cartouche at lower left (the cartouche is perched on the Tropic of Capricorn), stipple-engraved seas, light grey toned background. Follows p. 80. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:4 (illustrated 9910:371). This is a foundation map for the area. “R. de buenas arres” is located. Located is Asunción, where Cabeza de Vaca, after his sojourn in Texas, helped establish government for the remaining colonists of Buenos Aires in 1541.

[5]  Brasilia. Coast of Brasil from the Tropic of Capricorn north. Title within cartouche at lower left, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 82. Phillips, America, p. 170. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:5 (illustrated 9850:371, Variant B). Most of the place names given are around the coast, while most of the interior is blank.

[6]  Pervani Regni Descriptio. 1597. Coast of Peru with considerable interior detail; includes parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and part of Brazil. Title within cartouche at lower left, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 86. Phillips, America, p. 692. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:6 (illustrated 9820:371:1). Shown are both Inca and Spanish cities. Spanish development was rapid and early due to mining.

[7]  Castilia Avrifera Cvm Vicinis Provinciis. Northwest portion of South America (mostly Colombia, with parts of Venezuela and Panama). Title at top left, within intricate strapwork cartouche with angel, lion, compass parts, and draped vines with fruit, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 92. JCB, Archive of Early American Images B07-111-000. Kohl 261. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:7 (illustrated 9810:371, Variant B, with corrected “Timana”). Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America (illustrated between pp. 190-191 in Vol. II and commenting on the prominent place name “Castilla del Oro: “This name has a shifting lodgement in the early maps and writers.” In addition to the good configuration of the coastline, many locations are shown, both on the coast and interior, as one would expect, given the success of Spanish mining ventures.

[8]  Residvvm Continentis Cvm Adiacentibvs Insvlis. Northern coast of South America and the Lesser Antilles. Title cartouche at top right, moiré-patterned seas. Follows p. 96. Phillips, America, p. 1052. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:8 (illustrated 9700:371, present copy Variant B, with correction to “Tacari”). This map was used as a source for the multi-volume work published in the late nineteenth century boundary dispute between Brazil and French Guiana (Frontières entre le Brésil et la Guyane Française, Vol. V:2451).

[9]  Hispaniola Insvla. Island of Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) and the east end of Cuba. Title in cartouche at top right, moiré-patterned seas. Follows p. 98. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:9 (illustrated 9630:371, noting variant B with correction to “Punt. de Nigua,” etc., as in present copy). Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola on December 5, 1492, and claimed it for Spain, naming it “La Isla Española.” He built the first Spanish settlement in the New World from the timbers of his ship. “P. Nativitat,” which is shown on the north side of this map, where Columbus’ settlement was located. The map shows both Spanish and indigenous settlements. “After 1540 there was a long period of stagnation in the representation of Santo Domingo. It did appear as a single map, Hispaniola Insula, in...Wytfliet in 1597, but this map represents a regression on the early versions” (p. 315 in B.W. Higman’s “The Cartography of the Caribbean, 1500-1560” in Vol. II, General History of the Caribbean: New Societies, The Caribbean in the Long Sixteenth Century, UNESCO, 1999).

[10] Cvba Insvla Et Iamaica. Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, eastern part of Hispaniola. Title at lower left in cartouche with strapwork, ram’s head, putti, female busts, vines with fruit, moiré-patterned seas. Follows p. 100. Cueto, Cuba in Old Maps 16. Kapp, Printed Maps of Jamaica up to 1825 #5. Phillips, America, p. 253. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:10 (illustrated 9610:271). Cuba had been settled for thousands of years by Arawak-speaking tribes, and was densely populated in its eastern half when first seen by Europeans during the first voyage of Columbus, who reported the Taino name as “Colba.” This dynamic map shows many place names on the coast as well as the interior, and mountains are delineated in hachure.

[11] Ivcatana Regio Et Fondvra. Yucatán peninsula and southeastern Mexico to northern Panama, including Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Title in cartouche at top right, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 104. Antochiw, Historia cartográfica de la Península de Yucatán, Plate 4 in portfolio. Bornholt, Cuatro Siglos de Expresiones Geográficas del Istmo Centroamericano 26 (p. 64), noting that the 1597 state of the map “was the only sixteenth-century map to focus solely on Central America... This map is a good example of the image of Central America that was being formed in the European mind.” Phillips, America, p. 214. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:11 (illustrated 9550:371). Wytfliet’s map was referenced in the 1918-1919 Mediation of the Honduran-Guatemalan Boundary Question (Vol. I, p. 493): “This map gives to Honduras (Fondura) all of the territory east of the Rio Grande [today’s Rio Dulce], which is represented as flowing from a large body of water, apparently the Gulf of Dulce.”

[12] Hispania Nova. Mexico from the far northwestern region to the southeastern area. Title at lower left in strapwork cartouche with birds and botanical motifs, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 108. Burden, The Mapping of North America 105 (notes only one state, but van der Krogt notes variant B with “Xalis” changed to “Xalisco” etc; our copy is variant B): “This map concentrated on the Spanish area of influence in present day Mexico. Like a lot of his maps he draws from Plancius’ world map of 1592 amongst others. The area covered takes in all of present day southern Texas up to the latitude of 30° north.... No other states of the map are known and all issues are without text on the back.” Kohl 263. Phillips, America, p. 404. Reinhartz & Saxon, The Mapping of the Entradas into the Greater Southwest, p. 203 and illustrated as Plate 6.56. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:12 (illustrated 9510:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast #190 (p. 293). See also Howard F. Cline, “The Ortelius Maps of New Spain, 1579, and Related Contemporary Materials 1560-1610” in Imago Mundi (Vol. 16, pp. 98-115); and Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. 98, July 1994-April, 1995 (cover illustration). The map focuses on the Spanish sixteenth-century exploration of Mexico and the Borderlands, and includes the western part of the Gulf of Mexico. The paucity of dates on Texas indicates how little was then known of the area. Modern cities of Mexico located by their present placenames include Acapulco, Culiacan, Guadalajara, Veracruz, and Mexico City.

[13] Granata Nova Et California. Gulf of California, Mexican coast, and west coast of California, which is shown attached to the mainland; north is to the left. Title within strapwork cartouche at top left, moiré-patterned seas. Follows p. 110. JCB, Early American Images 0854-2. Burden, The Mapping of North America 106 (only one state, but Van der Krogt notes variant B corrected to “Per latan” like our copy): “The first printed map devoted to California and the south-west of the present day United States. One of the most interesting features is the depiction of so many fabled places largely from Spanish sources. Most notable amongst these are the seven cities of Cibola.... The seven cities originated from the narrative of Fray Marcos de Niza in 1539.... Some of the other nomenclature originates from Coronado’s epic exploration. The outline map is fairly accurate and is derived largely from Petrus Plancius’ large world map of 1592. The main coastal irregularity is the westward slant of the Californian coastline. Bearing in mind that it would be shown as part of an island in twenty five years, this is quite forgivable.... No other states of the map are known and all issues are without text on the back.” California 49: Forty-Nine Maps of California from the Sixteenth Century to the Present, Map 7 (p. 14 & 15, illustrated). Kohl 282. Lowery 99. Nebenzahl, “Mapping the Transmississippi West” #9 (p. 8 & illustrated as Figure 4 on p. 9). Phillips, America, p. 404.Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America Plate 41: “Only sixteenth-century printed map specifically devoted to Southern California.” Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:13 (illustrated 9530:371). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast #188 (p. 292). Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West 29 & Vol. I, p. 28: “The New Mexico Lake type [with] devices representing seven cities surrounding the New Mexican lake, with the nearby legend Septem civitatum Patria.”

[14] Limes Occidentis Quiuira et Anian. 1597. Early view of the Alaskan coast, the west coast portions of present U.S. and Canada, and the interior (including “Qvivira Regnum”and “Tolm Regnum”). Title at lower left within simple frame border, above which is a large compass, moiré-patterned seas. Follows p. 114. Marvin W. Falk, “Images of Pre-Discovery Alaska in the Work of European Cartographers” in Arctic, Vol. 37, No. 4, Unveiling the Arctic, December 1984, pp. 562-573 (present map illustrated as Fig. 3): “The surviving pre-discovery maps looking most like Alaska were drawn by Peter Plancius and adapted by other cartographers from about 1590 to 1600.... The apex of this trend was reached by Cornelius Wytfliet [in] the first atlas devoted entirely to America. (Verner and Stuart-Stubbs, The Northpart of America, p. 84, incorrectly state: ‘in many respects this map is the first printed map of Alaska.’ They apparently were unaware of Plancius, claiming that this map was derived from Gastaldi.) One of the most interesting features of the Wytfliet map is that the Arctic Circle goes through something that resembles the Seward Peninsula in both shape and location. With some imagination, one can conjure up the Mackenzie, the beginnings of an Alaska Peninsula, and so forth.... With the Wytfliet map, Anian Regnum became the dominant name for the region.” Burden, The Mapping of North America 107 (Burden’s State 1, with date 1597): “The general shape derives from that of Gerard Mercator’s world map of 1569, with a pronounced bulge coincidentally similar to that of Alaska as we know it today, but latitudinally larger so that its south coast is at about 40°.... At the top of the map above the Arctic Circle, we find the by now familiar Northwest Passage.” Kohl 282. Lowery 85n. Phillips, America, p. 558. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:14 (illustrated 9190.371.1). Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast #189 (p. 292): “Simply an extension of the preceding map on a larger scale”; p. 100 (discussion of possible sources).

[15] Conibas Regio Cvm Vicinis Gentibvs. Central Canada, Hudsons Bay (or remnants of the Verrazzano sea theory), and the central U.S. Title within strapwork cartouche at top left, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 116. The first depiction in a French atlas of the area. Burden, The Mapping of North America 100 (Burden’s State 3 with the name of the island changed to “Higuater”): “Despite the fact that this map covers territory virtually unknown to the Europeans, it owes its existence to the fact that Wytfliet showed every part of the continent however little knowledge there was of it. This is, however, the first printed map of present day central Canada.” Kershaw, Early Printed Maps of Canada, pp. 44-46. Phillips, America, p. 558. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:15 (illustrated 9120:371).

[16] Florida Et Apalche. Atlantic and Caribbean coast from approximately South Carolina to northeastern Mexico, including part of Yucatán and Cuba. The Rio Grande is shown by its old name, Rio Escondido. Title at top right in small frame cartouche, moiré-patterned seas. Precedes p. 117. Burden, The Mapping of North America 104 (noting only one state of the map is known, and all issues are without text on verso): “Drawn from the Abraham Ortelius—Gerónimo de Chaves map entitled La Florida, published in 1584. However, here Wytfliet expands the area covered south to include parts of Cuba and north to C. de Arenas or the area of the Outer Banks of Carolina. It also enabled him to include the territory called APALCHE. Most of the cartography is derived from the explorations of Hernando de Soto during the years 1539-42. As such it is one of the few maps of the sixteenth century to record inland information largely drawn from first hand European sources. Along with the Ortelius map of 1584 and the Johannes Metellus of 1598, these are the only printed maps of the present day southern United States published in the sixteenth century.” Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps 18. Goss, The Mapping of North America 20. Jackson, Flags along the Coast. pp. 7 & 100. Kohl 225n & 264. Lemmon, et al, Charting Louisiana: Five Hundred Years of Maps, Plate 3, p. 25. Lowery 83n. Martin & Martin, Plate 6 & p. 75: “Wytfliet’s map of the lands north of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida et Apalche, plainly was plagiarized from...Chaves’ map recording the discoveries of Cabeza de Vaca, de Soto, and Moscoso [and] one of the earliest printed maps of the territory based and actual observations, and its reproduction in Wytfliet’s popular work helped to correct the previous imaginary concepts of the area.” Phillips, America, p. 279. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, p. 83. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:16 (illustrated 9400:371).

[17] Norvmbega Et Virginia. 1597. The northeastern coast of North America from Virginia to Cape Breton in New France. Title at top left in small frame cartouche, moiré-patterned seas, large compass at lower right. Follows p. 120. JCB, Early American Images 0854-1. Burden, The Mapping of North America 103 (first state, dated 1597, left latitudinal mark reads 30 instead of 39): “This was the most accurate map of the east coast until de Laet (1630), and only the second to use Virginia in the title.... NORVMBEGA, used at first to delineate a large area and a mythical city, later came to be seen to represent the area of Penobscot River in present day Maine.” Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps 19. Danforth, The Land of Norumbega: Maine in the Age of Exploration and Settlement 49. McCorkle, New England in Early Printed Maps 597.3 (illustrated, p. 14). Phillips, America, p. 558. Phillips, Virginia Cartography, pp. 18-19. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, Plate 40 (p. 80). Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1915-28, II, Plate 20. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:17 (illustrated 9200:371.1 & 2).

[18] Nova Francia Et Canada. 1597. Northeast Canada. Title at center left in strapwork cartouche, stipple-engraved seas. Follows p. 122. Burden, The Mapping of North America 102 (first state, as here, with date 1597): “The last of the eight maps relating to North America in Wytfliet’s first atlas of the New World. It is the first to use CANADA in its title, and the first to concentrate on the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence. It summarises sixteenth-century knowledge of the area just prior to the expansion of France here, and voyages of Samuel de Champlain.” Kershaw, Early Printed Maps of Canada, pp. 40-43 & Plate 22. Kohl 164. Phillips, America, p. 189. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:18 (illustrated 9160:371.1).

[19] Estotilandia Et Laboratoris Terra. Centered on Davis Strait; shows Greenland, extreme northeastern Canada, Iceland, and the mythical island of Frisland, which appeared on virtually all of the maps of the North Atlantic from the 1560s through the 1660s, until French and English navigators explored the area. Title at upper left in strapwork cartouche with sunburst, two lion heads, and botanical motifs. Follows p. 124. Burden, The Mapping of North America 101 (only one known state of the map): “The map’s importance comes from its concentration on the area of the English voyages of Frobisher and Davis; they are depicted here in greater detail than before. Clearly derived from Cornelis Claes Nova Francia of 1594, Wytfliet interestingly draws upon the inset on it for the area of Labrador which had offered an alternative representation to the main map. Some information is shown twice on this map as both Frobisher and Davis visited the same shores but were unaware of the fact.” Kohl 113. Phillips, America, p. 303. Trudel, Atlas de la Nouvelle France, p. 65. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11:19 (illustrated 9110:371).

     First French edition (considerably enlarged) of the first atlas of maps specifically devoted to the Americas. The first part is extracted from and freely translated from the author’s 1597 work in Latin, Descriptionis Ptolemaicæ augmentum. The fine series of American maps are the same as in the earlier editions, some with occasional minor revisions and corrections. This was the first edition of Wytfliet to have the second part, by Magini and entirely devoted to the East Indies (see last paragraph herein). Atkinson, La Littérature géographique française de le Renaissance 459. Bornholt, Cuatro Siglos de Expresiones Geográficas del Istmo Centroamericano, p. 193: “The importance of his only atlas, the first one ever printed dealing exclusively with America, cannot be emphasized enough.” Borba de Moraes, p. 946. JCB I (2, 1600-1658), pp. 36-37. Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps 18 & 19. Echeverria & Wilkie, The French Image of America 1605/1. European Americana 1605/129. Gallup, Donald Clifford, “The First Separately Published Atlas Entirely Devoted to the Americas: Wytfliet’s Descriptionis Ptolemaicae Augmentum,” in Bibliographical Society of America Papers, Vol. 76, 1982, pp. 63-73 (edition E). Hill I(1), pp. 331-332; II:1920: “The maps of the Americas are handsomely engraved and several are of special interest; such as the first separate map of the West Coast and Alaska region and the first delineation of the Canadian Northwest.” Palau 376626. Phillips, Atlases 1143 (see also 1140): “As important in the history of the early cartography of the New World as Ptolemy’s maps are in the study of the Old.” Sabin 105699. Streit V:63. Van der Krogt (editor), Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici 371:11 (new edition, Vol. III, Part B: “This French edition of 1605 was considerably enlarged. In addition to the landmark material on the New World, it includes a history and description of the East Indies by Magini and others”). Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, p. 472 (at the conclusion of his discussion of Ortelius’ maps): “This completes the story of the popularity of Ortelius down to the publication of Wytfliet, when American cartography obtained its special exponent.” See also the facsimile edition of Wytfliet’s atlas edited by R.A. Skelton (Descriptionis Ptolemaicae augmentum, Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1964).

     Wytfliet was the first to provide separate maps of a number of regions of the Americas and his maps reflect the state of geographical knowledge at the critical historical juncture between the age of discovery and the period of exploration and colonization. Wytfliet is also the transitional cartographer between the first generation of great Dutch cartographers (Mercator, Ortelius, and Plancius) and the next (Blaeu, Hondius, and Jansson). Some of his observations, however, are pure fantasy. For example, he states in his discussion of “Florida” that the area is rich in gold and silver that comes from Appalachian Mountains’ rivers (p. 119). Wytfliet (fl. latter half of the sixteenth century) in his official position of Secretary to the Council of Brabant was kept in touch with the latest developments in exploration and discovery. He was more a geographical analyst than a cartographer, with the ability and available information to synthesize geographical information into the present form.

The second part of the work, relating to the Oriental Indies, is new, occupies 52 pages, and is written by Giovanni Antonio Magini and other historians. It has been conjectured (see European Americana, Phillips, et al.) that the second part, which mentions Cabral’s discovery of Brazil, perhaps derives from Giovanni Antonio Magini’s commentaries on Ptolemy’s Geographiæ...libri octo (first published at Venice in 1596). To this second part was added a series of four small engraved maps on one sheet—India, Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands (this sheet of maps is wanting in the present copy, as noted above). ($10,000-20,000)

Sold. Hammer: $10,000.00; Price Realized: $12,250.00.

Auction 23 Abstracts

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