AUCTION 23

 

With Alterations & Additions related to the Reign of Maximilian

Three Very Unusual Plates:Gendarmerie Mexicaine, Siege of Puebla & Kickapoo

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75. CASTRO, C[asimiro], J[uan] Campillo, L. Auda, and G. Rodríguez. [Lithograph pictorial title page] Mexico y sus alrededores. Coleccion de vistas, trajes y monumentos por C. Castro, J. Campillo, L. Auda y G. Rodriguez. Publicacion de Decaen Editor.... Mexico: Ejecutado en el Establecimiento Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo, 1863-1864. 42 lithograph plates: pictorial title and 41 plates with captions in English, Spanish, and French (9 full-color, remainder on tinted grounds, some duotone), 4 plates with 2 images on one sheet: total: 46 images on 42 leaves, plus folded lithograph map. Folio (46.2 x 33 cm), publisher’s original dark green cloth gilt-lettered on upper cover: Mexico y sus alrededores 1866. Binding expertly recased, spine lightly chipped at extremities and corner slightly bumped, binding with a few light stains. All plates and map professionally washed and deacidified, new tissue guards. Endpapers with ink inscription dated at Mexico, April 5, 1872 (partially erased but readable: “Mrs. John H. Boardman from Felipe A. Robinson, Mexico 5th April 1872”). Note: Text not present in this copy, but copies are not always found with text. There is no evidence that any text was ever bound in this copy, which is in the original publisher’s binding.

Map

Plano general de la ciudad de Mexico año de 1865 [below neat line at right] México Lito. de Decaen y Debray. Lithograph map with blocks colored in brown. Neat line to neat line: 33 x 44.5 cm; overall sheet size: 44.6 x 54 cm. Key to sites at upper right: parishes, monasteries, convents, churches, public buildings, plazas, and market places. Carrera Stampa 275.
Very scarce.

Plates

[1]  [Pictorial title] [in image] Mexico y sus alrededores. Coleccion de vistas, trajes y monumentos por C. Castro, J. Campillo, L. Auda, y G. Rodriguez. Publicacion de Decaen, Editor. [below image] Ejecutado en el Estlecimiento Litog. de Decaen. Portal del Coliseo Viejo México 1863 y 1864. [below image at left] C. Castro, del. y lit. Maize ground. 33.8 x 23.8 cm.

[2]  The City of Mexico taken from a Balloon. | La Ciudad de Mexico tomada en Globo. | La Ville de Mexico prise en Ballon.[above image] Mexico y sus alrededores [below image] C. Castro del. y litog. | México Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Full color. 25.1 x 37.3 cm

[3]  The Tlaxpana Fountain, Avenue of San Cosme. | La Fuente de la Tlaxpana, Calzada de San Cosme. | Fontaine de la Tlaxpana, Avenue de Saint Cosmé. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lito. | México Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Full color. 23.6 x 33.5 cm. This is the early version (see Castro 1), but in color for the first time. For a later version see Castro 5.

[4]  A. Stage Coach Attacked. | Ataque de una Diligencia. | Attaque d’une Diligence. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] M. Serrano dib. C. Castro lit. | México, Litog. Decaen Editor del Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Full color. 23.1 x 33.1 cm.

[5]  Gendarmerie Mexicaine, Escortant des Prisonniers. | Gendarmeria Mexicana, Escoltando Prisoneros. | Mexican Gendarmerie, Escolting [sic] Prisioners [sic]. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] Propiedad del editores. | Lit. de Decaen y Debray editores, México, Portal del Coliseo viejo. | J. A. Beaucé Pinxt. Full color. 23.7 x 35.2 cm. The unusual subject shows Maximilian’s reliance on regular police forces imported from France for law enforcement during the French occupation. The artist is Frenchman Jean Adolphe Beaucé (1818-1875), a painter of military subjects, student of C. Bazin, and a member of the French Expeditionary Corps to Mexico. First and only appearance of this image in the collection of Castro albums in this catalogue.

[6]  Public Square Guardiola, Corner of the convent of San Francisco. | La Plazuela de Guardiola, Esquina del convento de San Francisco. | La Petite Place de Guardiola, Encoignure du couvent de Saint François. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del. y lito. | Litog. de Decaen, editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.1 x 33.4 cm. This is the early version (see Castro 1) before it was renamed Morelos Square (see Castro 5).

[7]  Principal Parish Church. | El Sagrario de México. | Paroisse Principale. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] L. Auda del. y C. Castro lito. | México Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Tan ground. 23.5 x 33.4 cm.

[8]  Municipal House, or Deputation. | Casa Municipal, ó Diputacion. | Maison Municipale, ou Députation. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lit. | Litog. de Decaen editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.2 x 33.4 cm.

[9]  Emperor Iturbide’s House, Now general stages Hotel. | Casa del Emperador Iturbide, Hoy hotel de las Diligencias Generales. | Maison de l’Empereur Iturbide, Aujourd’hui hotel des Diligences generales. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro, del. y lito. | México. Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.6 x 34 cm. This is the early version (see Castro 1); for the later version see Castro 5.

[10] [Two images on one sheet, above images] México y sus alrededores. [upper image] St. Antonio Chimalistaca, Entrance from St. Angel. | San Antonio Chimalistaca, Entrada de St. Angel. | Saint Antoine Chimalistaca, Entrée de St. Angel. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del. y lit. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lit. | Imp. Litog. México. Litog. de Decaen, editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 14.5 x 27 cm. [lower image] Saint Angel, The Square of St. Jacinto. | San Angel, Plaza de San Jacinto. | Saint Angel, Place de St. Hyacinthe. Maize ground. 14.5 x 27 cm.

[11] The Town of Guadalupe, Taken from a balloon. | La Villa de Guadalupe, Tomada en globo el dia 12 de Diciembre. | La Ville de Guadalupe, Prise en ballon. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro, del. y lito. | México. Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.4 x 33.4 cm.

[12] [Two images on one sheet, above images] México y sus alrededores. [upper image] Interior of the Alameda of Mexico. | Interior de la Alameda de México. | Interieur de L’Alameda de Mexico. Maize ground. 15.3 x 27 cm. [lower image] Imperial Theatre of México. | Teatro Imperial de México. | Théâtre Imperial de Mexico. [below image] Litog. de Decaen, editor, México Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 15 x 26 cm. The image is consistent throughout all the albums, but here the title is changed from National Theatre to Imperial Theatre, reflecting the French occupation.

[13] [Two images on one sheet, above images] México y sus alrededores. [upper image] Square of San Agustin de las Cuevas, Town of Tlalpam. | Plaza de San Agustin de las Cuevas, Ciudad de Tlalpam. | Place de Saint Agustin des Grottes, Ville de Tlalpam. Maize ground. 14.9 x 27 cm. [lower image] The Mount Calvary. | El Calvario, En San Agustin de las Cuevas. | Le Calvaire. [below image] Castro, del y lit. | Litog. de Decaen editor, México Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 14.9 x 26.4 cm.

[14] Roldan Street, and its Wharf. | La Calle de Roldan, y su desembarcadero. | La Rue de Roldan, et son debarcadère. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lito. | Litog. de Decaen, México Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Beige ground. 23.8 x 33.6 cm.

[15] The Town of Tacubaya, Taken from Chapultepec. | La Villa de Tacubaya, Tomada desde Chapultepec. | La Ville de Tacubaya, Prise de Chapultepec. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro, del. y lit. | México, Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Rich yellow ground. 23.5 x 33.4 cm.

[16] The Town of Tacubaya, Taken from a bird’s eye view from the road of Toluca. | La Villa de Tacubaya, Tomada á ojo de pajaro sobre el camino de Toluca. | La Ville de Tacubaya, Vue prise à vue d’oiseau sur le chemin de Toluca. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lit. | México, Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Pale yellow ground. 23.5 x 33.4 cm.

[17] College of Miners. | Colegio de Mineria. | Ecole des Mines. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y G. Rodriguez, del. y lit. | México Litog. de Decaen, editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.4 x 33.3 cm.

[18] The Bucareli Promenade. | Paseo de Bucareli. | Promenade de Bucareli. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lito. | Litog. de Decaen editor, México, Portal Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.3 x 33.3 cm. This is the early version of the image (see Castro 1), but here but on a lighter tinted ground.

[19] Iturbide Market, Old St. John square. | El Mercado de Iturbide, Antigua plaza de San Juan. | Le Marche d’Iturbide, Ancienne place de Saint Jean. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lito. | México. Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.1 x 33.4 cm.

[20] The Alameda of México, Taken from a Balloon. | La Alameda de México, Tomada en Globo. | L’Alameda de México, Prise en Ballon. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro, del. y Lito. | México, Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Maize ground. 23.5 x 33.6 cm.

[21] The Viga Promenade. | El Paseo de la Viga. | La Promenade de la Viga. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del y lito. | Litog. de Decaen, editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Full color. 23.5 x 33.4 cm.

[22] Cathedral of Mexico. | Catedral de México. | Cathédrale de Mexico. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. y lit. | México Litog. de Decaen Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Maize ground. 23.3 x 35.5 cm. This is the early version (Castro 2), the prominent feature being an official carriage with large retinue at lower right, with toned ground. The later version would show French Zouaves.

[23] Interior de la Catedral de México, En el dia 26 de Abril del año de 1855 en que se celebró en ella la Declaracion Dógmatica de la Inmaculada Concepcion de María Santisima. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro, del. y lit. | Litog. de Decaen editor, México Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Duo-tone tinting in pale yellow and pale blue. 34.2 x 26.6 cm.

[24] The Bower, In the interior of the Chapultepec Park. | La Glorieta, En el interior del Bosque de Chapultepec. | Le Berceau, Dans l’interieur du Parc de Chapultepec. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. y lit. | México. Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Beige ground. 23.2 x 33.7 cm.

[25] [Two images on one sheet, above images] Mexico y sus alrededores. [upper image] Tore-Court [sic] of the Convent of Sn. Francisco. | Atrio del Convento de San Francisco. | Parvis du couvent de St. François. Beige ground. 15.2 x 22.7 cm. [lower image] Interior of Iturbide Theatre. | Interior del Teatro Iturbide. | Interieur du Theatre d’Iturbide. [below image] C. Castro, del. y lit. | Litog. de Decaen, editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Beige ground. 15.2 x 20.9 cm.

[26] Square of Sto. Domingo. | Plaza de Santo Domingo. | Place de Saint Dominique. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo | Litog. de Decaen editor México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Pale yellow ground. 23.5 x 33.4 cm.

[27] View of the Valley of México, Taken from the heights of Chapultepec. | El Valle de México, Tomado desde las alturas de Chapultepec. | La Vallée de México, Prise des hauteurs de Chapultepec. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. lit. | Litog. de Decaen editor México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Beige ground. 23.3 x 34.3 cm. Early version of a plate that would later be radically changed in details, perspective, and technique. See Castro 1 and Castro 5

[28] Palais National de Mexico. | Palacio Nacional de México. | National Palace of Mexico. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. y lit. | Litog. de Decaen Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Maize ground. 23.1 x 33.2 cm. This version does not include the additional statement under the Spanish title: Entrada del Ejército federal el 1o. de Enero de 1861.

[29] Square of Arms of Mexico. | Plaza de Armas de México. | Place d’Armes de México. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. y lit. | México. Litog. de Decaen, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.5 x 37.5 cm. Retains first version of the scene of the public garden (see Castro 3).

[30] Public Square of México. | Plaza de Armas de México. | Place d’Armes de México. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del. y lito. | Imp. Litog. de Decaen, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.3 x 33.5 cm. Early version of Zócalo with the parade ground (see Castro 1).

[31] Antiquités Mexicaines qui existent au Musée national de Mexico. 1857. | Antigüedades Méxicanas, que existen en el Museo nacional de México. 1857. |Mexican antiquities which exist in the National Museum of México 1857. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro del y lito. | Imp. Lito. de Decaen. Mexico Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Slate green ground. 23.5 x 33.5 cm.

[32] Mexican Dresses. | Trajes Mexicanos. | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lito. | Mexico, Litog. de Decaen, Editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.5 x 33 cm. Market scene with man carrying pigskin containers. The title is changed from Dresses of Mexican to Mexican Dresses.

[33] Road from Tacubaya to Chapultepec, Dresses of Mexican Indians. | Camino de Tacubaya a Chapultepec, Trajes de Indios Mexicanos. | Chemin de Tacubaya a Chapultepec. Costumes d’Indiens Mexicains. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lit. | México Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.6 x 33.5 cm.

[34] Indiens Kikapoos, Présentés á S.M. Maximilien 1t. | Indios Kikapoos, Presentados á S.M. Maximiliano 1o. 1865. | Indian Kikapoos, Presented to H.M. Maximilien 1. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] Propiedad del editores.| Lit Decaen y Debray, editores, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Full color. 24 x 33.5 cm. A group of Kickapoo and runaway slaves being presented at the court of the Austrian Archduke Emperor of Mexico Maximilian. It would be difficult to find a more unusual and interesting plate of interest for Borderlands and Texas history. See below for more information on this image.

[35] Dresses of Mexican. | Trajes Mexicanos. | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del. y lit. | México, Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Full color. 23.2 x 33.5 cm. Group of smokers.

[36] Dresses of Mexican. | Trajes Mexicanos. | Costumes Méxicains. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del. y lit. | México, Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Maize ground. 23.3 x 33.5 cm. Equestrian group.

[37] Mexican Dresses. | Trajes Mexicanos. Soldados del Sur. 1855 | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lit. | Mexico. Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Full color. 23.2 x 33.3 cm. Soldiers from the South. The year 1855 is added after Spanish title.

[38] Mexican Dresses. | Trajes Mexicanos. | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lito. | México Litog. de Decaen Editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Beige ground. 24 x 33.2 cm. Fifty small figures of Mexican types. The English title has been changed from Dresses of Mexican to Mexican Dresses.

[39] Dresses of Mexican. | Trajes Mexicanos. | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo, del. y lit. | Mexico Imp. Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del editor. Pale yellow tinted ground. 23 x 33.4 cm. Market scene with fruit seller and sunshade.

[40] Mexican Dresses. | Trajes Mexicanos. un Fandango | Costumes Mexicains. [above image] México y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y J. Campillo del y lit. | México Litog. de Decaen editor, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Maize ground. 23.6 x 33.6 cm.

[41] View of Puebla. Taken from the hill of St. John. 1863. | Vista de Puebla. Tomada desde el Cerro de Sn. Juan. 1863. | Vue de Puebla prise du Mont. St. Jean. 1863. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image] C. Castro y G. Rodriquez dib. y lit. | Lit. de Decaen editor, México, Portal del Coliseo Viejo. | Propiedad del Editor. Maize ground. 23.2 x 33.9 cm. First and only appearance of this image in the collection of Castro albums in this catalogue.

[42] Veracruz. [above image] Mexico y sus alrededores. [below image at right] Lit de Decaen. Full color. 23.3 x 37 cm. Same image as in Castro 3, but without key to numbers, reference to the balloon, and attributions.

     Castro 4. This version of the album reflects the short-lived Second Empire in Mexico under Maximilian and France. Three new images appear in this album, and each is highly interesting from the perspectives of history and art: Plates [5] Gendarmerie Mexicaine], [34] Indiens Kikapoos, Présentés á S.M. Maximilien 1t., and [41] View of Puebla. Taken from the hill of St. John. 1863.

     Gendarmerie Mexicaine [Plate 5] is a vivid departure from the Castro’s style in the use of color, light, and mood, reflecting a Romantic sensibility. The subject is the imperial gendarmerie of Napoleon III that provided security forces attached to the expeditionary corps in Mexico during the French occupation. See Benoît Haberbusch, “L’emploi de la gendarmerie au Mexique (1861-1867), force prévôtale ou force de sécurité intérieure?” pp. 3-13 in Revue Historique des Armées, No. 258, January 2010. The lithograph is after the art work of Frenchman Jean Adolphe Beaucé (1818-1875), a painter of military subjects, student of C. Bazin, and a member of the French Expeditionary Corps to Mexico. He also illustrated works such as Alexandre Dumas’ Les Trois Mousquetaires and Jules Gérard’s Le Mangeur d’hommes (Paris, 1863). Beaucé made his debut at the Salon of 1839. In 1843 he followed the French army in North Africa, the Middle East, and Mexico. Numerous paintings by him relating to the Second Empire battles and the Mexico expedition are on exhibit at the Chateau of Versailles.

     The Siege of Puebla [Plate 41] is perhaps the rarest image from the Castro albums. The battle cemented French occupation of Mexico, with Mexico City falling shortly thereafter as the Juárez government went into exile in Northern Mexico. National pride would preclude the appearance of the plate in Castro’s albums after the French were expelled and Maximilian executed in 1867. Depicted is the beginning of the Siege of Puebla with a view from General Forey’s command post on San Juan Hill. After a siege lasting from March 16 to May 17, 1863, Mexican General Ortega was forced to surrender to the French. The Mexican troops refused parole because under the terms, they would have been prevented from taking up arms again. Instead they chose captivity, from which they soon escaped.

     Of Borderlands interest is the handsome and unusual Indiens Kikapoos, Présentés á S.M. Maximilien 1t. [Plate 34]in full color. The image presents a group of Kickapoo tribesmen and runaway Texas slaves being presented at the court of the Austrian Archduke Emperor of Mexico Maximilian in 1865. The Kickapoo sought to avoid involvement with the Confederacy or Union in the Civil War, and pleaded for asylum from Texans who were on the war path against them. The origin of the name Kickapoo, “he moves about,” certainly fits the history of these interesting peoples, who more than most any other North American tribe have retained their cultural identity and practices despite geographic fluctuations and myriad alliances. Their first contact with Europeans was with Lasalle in the late seventeenth century. Eventually, they migrated south from the Great Lakes area to Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico. The tribe survives today, dividing its time between their lands at El Nacimiento (Coahuila, Mexico), Kansas, Oklahoma, and in southern Texas near the international bridge at Piedras Negras.

     During the early Republic of Texas, Sam Houston attempted to obtain peace with the Kickapoo and guarantee them land grants. In the Surveyor’s Fight (1838, near Dawson in western Navarro County) only seven members of a surveying party survived against an alliance of Kickapoo and other tribes. The tribe’s subsequent association with Mexican guerrillas led by Vicente Córdova caused Houston’s successor, Mirabeau B. Lamar, to banish all Native Americans from Texas. Most of the Kickapoo fled to Mexico and Indian Territory. In late 1864, many of the Kickapoo in Kansas and Indian Territory set out through Texas to join their relatives in Mexico to avoid involvement in the Civil War. On January 8, 1865, their effort to remain neutral came to an end when three Kickapoo bands camping on Dove Creek (a tributary of the Concho River) were attacked by Confederates at the Battle of Dove Creek. Although surprised and outgunned, the neutral Kickapoo repelled the aggressors and routed the entire command, killing a large number of Confederates. Rightfully convinced that Texas had declared war on them, the Kickapoo quickly abandoned camp and completed their journey to Mexico to seek asylum from Maximilian. That fight changed everything, and the Kickapoo were hostile to whites from then onward. The Kickapoo tribe is the only tribe that never surrendered to or signed any kind of peace treaty with the United States. They have been granted the right to cross the border at will.

     The present lithograph has been suggested as the first lithograph made from a daguerreotype or some other type of photographic method in use in Mexico at the time. The Castro litho seems unlikely to be based on a daguerreotype, a process which by 1865 had been superseded by other techniques. Close examination reveals the image to be a lithographic combination of realism and artistic imagination. More likely, the image was based on a photograph by François Aubert (1839-1900), a Frenchman who had studied painting and arrived in Mexico in 1854. Some sources suggest he learned photography from Jules Amiel in Mexico City and took over Amiel’s studio in 1864. Other sources state that Aubert arrived with Maximilian’s court in 1864. Although an army of photographers, both foreign and Mexican, descended upon Mexico to document and profit on the short-lived French Empire, Aubert’s images dominate the ill-fated dream of Napoleon III. Aubert left the most complete record of the French Intervention, but departed Mexico in 1869. For Aubert’s photograph of the Kickapoo delegation to the court of Maximilian, see his image Kickapoo Delegation to the Court of Maximilien, ca. 1865 (Olivier Debroise, Mexican Suite: A History of Photography in Mexico, UT Press, 2001, pp. 26-27). See also Jesse Lerner’s “Imported Nationalism” in Cabinet (Issue 5, Winter 2001-2002). Castro, Decaen, and Debray were not the only ones fascinated by the Kickapoo delegation to Maximilian. The image appears reworked in the March 11, 1865, issue of The Illustrated London News. Hungarian artist August Theodor Schoefft (1809-1899) made an oil painting entitled “Six Kickapoo Indians, Chief and Family” (ca. 1865, Autry Museum). Both of those views omit the runaway slaves. The most elegant rendering of the Kickapoo meeting with Maximilian is an oil painting by Beaucé, Vista de la embajada de los indios kicapoos al emperador Maximiano (ca. 1865, Museo Erzerzog Franz Ferdinand, Castillo de Artstetten, Austria). Beaucé was the artist of Gendarmerie Mexicaine, Plate 5 in this album. Beaucé’s painting retains the runaway slave in the background.

($10,000-12,000)

Sold. Hammer: $10,000.00; Price Realized: $12,250.00.

Auction 23 Abstracts

Click thumbnails to open zoomable images.
 Schoefft, August. Six Kickapoo Indians, Chief and Family.
 The Illustrated London News, March 11, 1865

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