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"First Printed Sea Chart of the Gulf of Mexico"—Burden
Item 111 - detail
111. [MAP: GULF OF MEXICO]. DUDLEY, Robert, Sir. Carta particolare della Baia di Messico con la costa.... D'America carta. VII. [Florence, 1646]. Copperplate engraved map. 47.7 x 75.0 cm. (18-3/4 x 29-1/2 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Title cartouche with droll faces, compass rose, ships at sea, soundings. One minor marginal tear repaired, very slight wear and minor staining affecting only blank margins, generally fine. Rare, important, and exceptionally handsome.
First state (without Lo.6o. added to the title). Bryan & Hanak, plate 5. Burden 282: "The true location of the bay into which the R: di Sato. Spirito flows is strongly debated. Generally it is believed to represent the mouth of the Mississippi River; however, some authorities argue that it represents Galveston Bay." Lowery 108. Martin & Martin 9: "One of the most significant landmarks in the history of cartography, the first in which all of the maps are drawn in the Mercator projection.... His depiction of the Gulf of Mexico was the first published sea chart of that area and, therefore, had significant influence on later attempts. The map itself is a beautiful example of the fine copper engraving characteristic of seventeenth century Italy." National Maritime Museum Catalogue III:324. Nordenskiöld 70. Phillips, Atlases 457:III:105.
Printing & the Mind of Man 134: "[Dudley's] magnificent book is the most famous of all early sea atlases. [It] disseminated the new knowledge of seamanship as developed by Mercator, Edward Wright, and others. In its six parts it deals with longitude and the means of determining it, naval architecture and warfare, the principles of navigation, and nautical instruments; and it includes charts of ports and harbours, portolani and general maps rectified as to longitude and latitude. Its principal importance lies in the fact that all the maps and charts are drawn, for the first time in such a large sea atlas, on Mercator's projection and that it gives the prevailing winds and currents at all important harbours and anchorages and the magnetic declination of a large number of places. The principle of 'great circle sailing' is greatly improved and made practical. It was this principle which enabled modern navigators to find out that the quickest route to fly from Copenhagen to Tokyo is over the North Pole." The World Encompassed 190.
Dudley (ca. 1573-1649) was the illegitimate son of
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, brother-in-law of Thomas
Cavendish, and a favorite of Queen Elizabeth. He showed an
interest in marine warfare and navigation at an early age
and led an English expedition to Guiana and Trinidad in
1594 in search of El Dorado. When the Queen became
displeased with Dudley (supposedly over his amorous
affairs) at the turn of the century, he fled to Florence
where he entered the service of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany,
who needed his experience with shipbuilding and naval
warfare to rid the Mediterranean of pirates. Dudley
consulted the latest information available from explorers
and pilots to create maps that were both scientifically
accurate for their time and elegant works of art. Twelve
years and 5,000 pounds of copper were expended in the
preparation of Dudley's extraordinary atlas, of which only
a small number of copies were printed and sold. The
copperplates were engraved by the outstanding Italian
engraver Antonio Lucini (pupil of Callot and friend of
Stefano della Bella). The engravings exhibit Lucini's
consummate craftsmanship, with a delicacy and strength
making them true examples of Italian Baroque art. One
fascinating feature of this superb map is the inclusion of
coastal cities and towns and other navigational landmarks,
such as an erupting volcano, a pyramid (Tulum), and
mountains in Mexico. Legends on the map describe the
currents of the Gulf and rivers running into the Gulf. See
also next item.
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Item 112 - detail
112. [MAP: NEW SPAIN (WESTERN)]. DUDLEY, Robert, Sir. Carta particolare della parte ocidentale dell nuoua Spagnia è della California....D'America carta XXXI. [Florence, 1646]. Copperplate engraved map. 48.4 x 76.0 cm. (19-1/16 x 29-15/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Title cartouche with droll face, compass rose, ship. Three minor stains, one small void at fold filled (loss of only one letter), otherwise fine and crisp.
This spectacular chart shows the west coast of Mexico from the present-day southern limit of Mexico to central Baja California. It is crowded with place names, and the peninsula is labeled "La California." Phillips, Atlases 457:III:129. Wagner, Northwest Coast 352b.
Further on Dudley eloquently written by Henry Taliaferro: "The sea charts of Sir Robert Dudley...represent a high point in the history of cartographic craftsmanship. For quality of engraving, and for nuance and refinement of design, decoration, and calligraphy, they rank with the greatest achievements of seventeenth century Italian graphic art. In this respect, the history of cartography, as well as the modern collector, have profited from the personal problems and eccentricities that led Dudley to forsake his native England for the life of a Florentine courtier.... Dudley's charts represent the perfect flowering of a combination of English vigor and genius with Italian artistic brilliance.
"Dudley's charts are totally unique. Visually as
well as intellectually, they broke significant new ground.
But they were never copied. They established no school of
mapmaking; inspired no movement. Perhaps they were too
unique; too advanced. Each chart is a black and white
copper engraving. They were never colored, nor were they
meant to be colored. Dudley wished his charts to be strong,
with the bold but delicate quality of the engraved detail
unclouded by the opaque color that characterizes the maps
of his contemporaries. On each chart, the geographical
detail is marvelously clear and direct. The ornamental
elements...are among the most marvelous creations in the
history of cartography. Thus each...chart represents not
only a great advance for nautical cartography, but a
classic example of seventeenth-century decorative art as
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Rare and Unusual Map of California as an Island
Item 113, detail
113. [MAP: AMERICAS (CALIFORNIA AS AN ISLAND)]. [HAPPEL, Eberhard Werner]. [Untitled hemispheric map of the Americas]. [Ulm], 1687. Engraved map. 29.7 x 29.2 cm. (11-11/16 x 11-7/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Allegorical vignettes in the four corners representing America (Native American with tobacco plant smoking a long pipe), Africa (black person and child with elephant), Europe (man in European dress with sea chart, navigational devices, anchor, and oar with letters PWCPF), and Asia (man in fur clothing and hat, bear eating a child). Very fine.
This map appeared in Happel's Mundus
Mirabilis (1687) and later, in other works by the same
author. Not in Shirley, though he recorded and illustrated
the map subsequent to the 1987 edition of his The
Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps
1472-1700. See Shirley's 1993 article "Six New World
Maps" in The Map Collector (No. 64, pp. 3-8).
McLaughlin, The Mapping of California as an Island
92 (illustrated): "California of Briggs type.... Issued
in his Historia moderna Europæ, Ulm, 1687,
1692." This rare and curious map showing California as an
island is quite charming with its rather primitive and
appealing allegorical engravings.
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Rare Dutch Sea Chart of The Gulf of Mexico
114. [MAP: GULF OF MEXICO]. KEULEN, Johannes van & Claes Jansz. Vooght. Pas Kaart van de Golff van Mexico door Voogt Geometra.... Amsterdam, [ca. 1690]. Copperplate engraved map. Black and white. 51.7 x 58.5 cm. (21-3/8 x 23 inches). Scale: 1 inch = approximately 12.5 English miles. Title cartouche flanked by two winged cherubs, one with falcon and anchor, the other with snake and mirror; two compass roses; ship; rhumb lines. Inset: De Haaven van Iuan d'Ulhua in t Groot. 12.0 x 16.5 cm. (4-3/4 x 6-1/2 inches). Narrow strip (approximately 18.5 x 1.5 cm.; 7-1/8 x 9/16 inches) of the printed image at left filled in expert facsimile with paper seemingly identical with the map (even the chain lines match). Only a small portion of the map image is affected, primarily the rhumb lines and two or three letters). Small tear and much smaller repair at right blank margin. A strong impression on crisp paper of this rare old sea chart.
State 2, with Costa de Piscadoris added between Rio Panuco and Rio Bravo and the shoal along the Florida coast extending up to and inside Baja de Spirito Santo. Van Keulen's grand sea atlas appeared serially between 1681 and 1684. The Gulf of Mexico chart first appeared in the fourth part of the atlas (ca. 1684), which was devoted to the Americas. Because of its superiority to anything else then available, the atlas was reissued repeatedly, and the present map is from an early reissue (ca. 1690?), with minor revisions. Koeman IV:384 (129*); see also Koeman's history of the firm of Van Keulen, The Sea on Paper 44. Lowery 236.
Martin & Martin 11: "The culmination in the
development of Dutch pilot books was reached with the
publication of De Nieuwwe Groote lichtrende
Zee-Fakkel by Johannes van Keulen in 1681. Van Keulen,
a bookseller specializing in the nautical trade, retained
the well-known geographer and mathematician Claes Jansz.
Vooght, who compiled the charts for his publication, which
was issued serially in five parts, the last in 1683. The
work...enjoyed a considerable reputation for accuracy and
detail.... It represented the most sophisticated rendering
of the coast then available.... It is no exaggeration to
say that the house of Van Keulen, active without break from
1678 to 1885, was the largest nongovernmental hydrographic
office in the world." Nordenskiöld 121:111.
Phillips, Atlases 3444, 3453. As is often the case
with Dutch charts, west is at the top of the map, making
the orientation unusual.
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Rare Coronelli Gores for a Miniature Terrestrial Globe
115. [MAP: TERRESTRIAL GLOBE GORES (CALIFORNIA AS AN ISLAND)]. CORONELLI, V. M. [12 globe gores and horizon ring for 3-3/8 inch terrestrial globe]. Venice, 1697. Two copperplate engraved sheets: gores 14.0 x 27.6 cm. (5-1/2 x 10-7/8 inches); horizon ring diameter 13.0 cm. (5-1/8 inches). Black & white. Scale not indicated. Very fine, beautiful, and rare.
First printing (appeared in the 1697 edition
of Coronellis Libro dei Globi). Shirley 587.
Very rare engravings by Coronelli, the great Venetian
cartographer and cosmographer whose globes were the most
famous of the age. "In Italys long line of
illustrious geographers, cartographers, and globe makers,
none has rank in advance of Coronelli (1650-1718). His
achievements within his field were prodigious.... More than
four hundred maps were drawn, engraved, and printed by him
in the Franciscan Convent located on one of the Venetian
islands.... So great had become the fame of Coronelli as
early as the year 1685, that he was honored with the title
Cosmografo della Serenissima Republica, and was granted an
annual allowance of four hundred florins and a copyright
privilege protecting him in his right to print and publish
any of his works for a period of twenty-five years"
(Terrestrial and Celestial Globes II, pp. 97-98).
Coronellis work stands apart in the directness of his
sources, his bold graphic style, and even in the quality of
paper. California is shown as island.
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Item 116 - detail
116. [MAP: AMERICAS (CALIFORNIA AS AN ISLAND)]. DE FER, Nicolas. L'Amerique, Meridionale et Septentrionale dressée selon les dernieres Relations et suivant les Nouvelles Decouvertes dont les points principaux son placer sur les Observations de Mrs. de l'Academie Royal des Sciences. Paris, 1700. Engraved map. 22.7 x 33.9 cm. (8-15/16 x 13-3/8 inches). Original outline coloring. Scale: 1 inch = approximately 270 leagues. Ornamental cartouches around title, dedication, and scale; compass rose. Very fine.
First state. The map first appeared in De
Fer's L'atlas curieux (Paris, 1700-04), and remained
unaltered until 1740. McLaughlin, The Mapping of
California as an Island 135. Leighly 105. Tooley,
California as an Island 61. Wagner, Northwest
Coast 482. The maps of De Fer (1646-1720) are highly
regarded for their decorative qualities. He served as
French Royal Geographer, and, as might be expected, his
maps attempt to reinforce French claims to America. De Fer
consistently confined the English colonies on the Atlantic
seaboard to as narrow a strip as possible, as on the
present map, where a dotted boundary line for
Ne. Angleterre does not even extend to
the Great Lakes. Texas is included as a part of New
117. [MAP: NEW SPAIN]. DE FER, Nicolas. Le vieux Mexique ou Nouvelle Espagne auec les costes de la Floride faisant partie de l'Amerique Septentrionale.... Paris, 1702. Engraved map. 22.7 x 32.7 cm. (8-15/16 x 12-7/8 inches). Contemporary outline coloring and shading. Scale not stated. Decorated title cartouche with two Native Americans. Light waterstaining at lower blank margin not affecting image, else fine.
An attractively engraved map from De Fer's
L'atlas curieux (Paris, 1700-04).
Nordenskiöld 72n (citing the 1725 edition of the
atlas). Phillips, Atlases 532. Two French forts are
located: LaSalle's Fort St. Louis in Texas (Fort bati en
1685) and another near present-day New Orleans. One of
the prominent features in Northern Mexico is "Les Fameuses
Mines de Ste. Barbe," the legendary Santa Barbara mines of
the Chihuahua-Durango region.
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Item 118 - detail
118. [MAP: NORTH AMERICA (CALIFORNIA AS AN ISLAND)]. [LA FEUILLE, Daniel de]. L'Amerique Septentrionale. [Amsterdam, 1702?]. Engraved map. 14.1 x 19.3 cm. (5-9/16 x 7-5/8 inches). Black and white. Small pictorial title cartouche with four Native Americans, two standing and tending a fire, two seated beneath a palm tree with alligator and snake in foreground. At top right margin: Tom. 3. pag. 178. Fine.
La Feuille (1640-1709), goldsmith, clockmaker,
engraver, and publisher of Amsterdam, published and
engraved atlases, and geographic and military works.
California is shown with an indented coast line. The
Mississippi River is shown emptying into Texas and the
southeastern coast of Texas is designated as part of La
Floride. Not in McLaughlin, The Mapping of
California as an Island, but similar to his entry 147
(with some differences in place names and details, e.g.:
60 [degrees north latitude] appears on the present
map; more mountains are shown in the chain to the west of
the Mississippi; Canada ou Nouvelle France starts at
35ºN rather than 40ºN; Bernabe rather than
Piemabe appears at Cabo San Lucas). Koeman (La
Feuille) 1(6) or 4(6).
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Nolin's Plagiarism of Coronelli's Landmark Map
119. [MAP: NORTH AMERICA (CALIFORNIA AS AN ISLAND)]. [CORONELLI, V. M. &] Jean Pierre Nolin. L'Ameriqve septentrionale, ou la partie septentrionale des Indies Occidentales ou se trouve le Canada ou Nouvelle France la Floride la Virginie les Isles Antilles le Nouveau Mexique et la Nouvele. Espagne.... Paris: Nolin, 1704. Engraved map. 45.0 x 59.5 cm. (17-3/4 x 23-7/16 inches). Original outline coloring. Scale: 1 inch = approximately 120 miles. Large title cartouche with a Native American and an European supporting urns and cornucopias from which money is pouring; symbols for mines, volcanoes, religious establishments, capes, keys, etc. Upper blank corners of margins torn (not affecting image), a few tears (mostly marginal, only one touching border but not affecting printed text or image), generally very fine. A superb impression of this handsome map.
State 3 of the French edition of Coronelli's map of America, first published in Paris in 1689 by Nolin. In the present map, alterations include change of subtitle, attribution to Coronelli omitted, and date modified to 1704. Nolin, Royal Geographer in 1693, was convicted of plagiarizing the maps of De l'Isle in 1705. The present map is an example of Nolin's propensity to plagiarism. In the first state of the map, Coronelli is acknowledged as cartographer, and other maps by him are mentioned in a note on the map. In the present state, Nolin removed Coronelli's name from the cartouche, and the maps in the note are now attributed to Nolin.
McLaughlin, The Mapping of California as an
Island 99 (state 3). Martin & Martin 12 (citing the
Venice version of Coronelli's America
Settentrionale): "Coronelli had access to geographical
information from the explorers then moving throughout the
southwestern regions of North America. In 1688 Coronelli
issued his America Settentrionale, combining the
various contributions of knowledge up to that date.... As
Royal Geographer to the Republic of Venice, his maps were
favorably received by the highest political and scientific
circles in Paris and London. Although he corrected the
Sanson mistake of drawing the Rio Grande ('Rio del Norte')
as emptying into the Sea of California rather than the Gulf
of Mexico, Coronelli greatly confused the location of the
Mississippi River, drawing it in the middle of present-day
Texas. Presumably based upon the data of Minet, chronicler
of the La Salle expedition, the error might well explain
the confusion in La Salle's effort to colonize at the mouth
of the Mississippi River.... Coronelli's career marked a
step forward through the slow but steady recording of the
explorations that brought Texas into the limelight of
European politics." Taliaferro, p. 9: "Coronelli's famous
map of North America, 1688, is the first printed map to
show the [Rio Grande] river's entire course and to use the
name 'Rio Bravo.'" Tooley, The Mapping of America
("California as an Island") 50. Wagner, Northwest
Coast 477. Wheat, Transmississippi West 88. See
Lowery 177 for more on Nolin.
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One of the Earliest Printed Depictions of any Event in Texas
Item 120, detail
120. [MAP: GULF COAST REGION]. DE FER, Nicolas. Les Costes aux environs de la Riviere de Misisipi.... [Paris], 1705. Engraved map. 21.9 x 33.9 cm. (8-5/8 x 13-3/16 inches). Original outline coloring. Scale: 1 inch = approximately 40 French leagues. Ornamental pictorial cartouche depicting the death of La Salle in Texas in 1687. Fine.
State 2, with date changed from its first appearance
in 1701. The present map appeared in De Fer's L'Atlas
curieux (Paris, 1705). Day, pp. 4-5. Lowery 251n.
Martin & Martin 13 & Color Plate 11: "The primary
purpose [of De Fer's map] was clearly to show the progress
the French were making in exploring their vast claim in
North America, particularly in the explorations of La Salle
and those of Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville who, along
with his brother Jean Baptiste, explored the coastlines of
present-day Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida."
Phillips, Atlases 532n & 546n. The pictorial
cartouche of the disenchanted Pierre Duhaut murdering La
Salle east of the Trinity River is one of the earliest
printed depictions of any event in Texas.
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