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First Published Separate Map to Exclusively Depict the Western Hemisphere
Cannibals' hut - detail
98. [MAP: AMERICAS]. MÜNSTER, Sebastian. Die neüwen Inseln so hinder Hispanien gegen Orient bey dem land Indie ligen....Nouus orbis....Die Nüw Welt. [Basle, 1558]. Woodcut map with place names in metal type. 25.8 x 34.4 cm. (10-3/16 x 13-9/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Magellan's last surviving ship is shown in the Pacific Ocean; Portuguese flag in the South Atlantic; Spanish flag in the Caribbean; cannibals' hut with dismembered leg on east coast of South America. Fine.
State 9 of the map, with oua Insula Atlantica
in South America, and Sciana removed from the
Spanish flag; the map is from the 1558 German text edition
of Münster's Cosmographia universalis (first
state of map, 1540). Burden 12: "In 1540 Sebastian
Münster, who was to become one of the most influential
cartographers in the sixteenth century, published his
edition of Ptolemy's Geography with a further
section of modern, more up to date maps. He included for
the first time a set of continental maps; the [one of
America] was the earliest of any note.... He was the first
to create space in the woodblock for the insertion of
place-names in metal type. The map's inclusion in
Münster's Cosmography, first published in 1544,
sealed the fate of 'America' as the name for the New
World.... Mare pacificum appeared for the first time
on a printed map.... The Yucatan is still shown as an
island and the lake at Temistitan is depicted
emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.... Provided a huge
impetus to the exploration of the region." Harrisse (1892),
pp. 607-09. Kohl 58n. Lowery 46n. Martin & Martin 2:
"[Münster] presented a remarkably advanced outline of
the American continents, especially considering that less
than 50 years had elapsed since the first voyage of
Columbus.... Münster's map of the New World was
probably the single most widely distributed map of America
of the age.... His rendering of a single land mass, the
confirmation of the name America, and the dissemination of
the misinformation of Verrazzano combine to make it an
important step in the cartographic history of the region."
Schwartz & Ehrenberg, p. 50. Wagner, Northwest
Coast XXXIn. Wheat, Transmississippi West I:20n.
A basic map for an Americana collection, Münster's
influential map became the standard view of the New World
until Ortelius' 1570 map.
One of the earliest maps to show any detail in Texas and the Southwest
99. [MAP: NEW SPAIN]. RUSCELLI, Girolamo. Nveva Hispania tabvla nova. [Venice, 1561]. Copperplate engraved map. 18.6 x 24.6 cm. (7-5/16 x 9-11/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not indicated. Seas stipple engraved. Usual slight darkening at centerfold, else fine.
First state (plate mark running off top of
page; text on verso commencing: Nueva Hispania,
trentesimaprima tavola nuova). Burden 31. Martin &
Martin 3: "Gastaldi added a complete series of plates of
the New World to [the 1548 edition of] Ptolemy, including
the first map specifically devoted to New Spain.... [In the
1561 version, Ruscelli made] important innovations.... The
map of New Spain was significantly improved, correctly
showing Yucatan as a peninsula. The place names along the
upper Gulf Coast revealed the explorations of
Piñeda, Cabeza de Vaca, and Moscosso, and the
Mississippi, here shown as the 'Rio de Spiritu Santo,' was
carefully depicted. The map enjoyed wide influence,
appearing in successive editions of Ptolemy in 1561, 1564,
1573, 1574 (see item 101 herein), 1596, 1597, and 1599."
Nordenskiöld 216:60. Phillips, Atlases
371. Wagner, Northwest Coast 48. First printing
of one of the earliest maps to show any detail in Texas and
the Southwest. The extremely graceful and restrained style
of mapmaking by Gastaldi and Ruscelli marks a transition
from the earlier, heavier style of woodcut maps, reflecting
both the Italian sensibility and the use of copperplate
engraving as a medium for cartography.
Click for image
Perhaps the Most Famous and Beautiful Early Map of America
Item 100 - detail
100. [MAP: AMERICAS]. [ORTELIUS, Abraham]. Americae sive Novi Orbis, nova descriptio. [Antwerp, 1570]. Copperplate engraved map. 36.6 x 50.5 cm. (14-7/16 x 19-15/16 inches). Later(?) full coloring. Scale not indicated. Ornate, elaborately wrought strapwork cartouche graced with sphinxes, masks, swags of fruits, scroll work, entablatures, volutes, palms, ribbons, etc.; corner ornaments with intricate Renaissance patterns; ships and spouting whale in stipple engraved sea. Small paper flaw on cartouche neatly strengthened (barely discernable). Fine, a good, strong impression.
State 2 (Azores correctly labeled); the plate first
appeared in 1570 with the Azores incorrectly labeled. As in
the first appearance, the strapwork is 7 mm. thick and
composed of interwoven circle and diamond design; the
largest ship in the Pacific is sailing west; and the
Equator has no gradations between the longitudinal marks.
The present map appeared in the 1571 edition of Ortelius'
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (second line of text on
verso commences dinem, which is flush with the
margin). "One of the most famous and easily recognizable
maps of America, and one that is both functional as well as
decorative. [It] had a great influence on the future
cartography of the New World.... The Theatrum Orbis
Terrarum....was the first atlas produced that uniformly
covered the world with similar sized and styled maps....
All of the copperplates were cut by Frans Hogenberg.
Published on 20 May 1570, it was an instant success running
to four issues in the first year alone.... Prior to 1570
Ortelius traveled extensively, and built up numerous
contacts. It was these sources that he used to provide
accurate information for his maps" (Burden 39). This map,
the first of America to appear in a modern atlas, was based
on actual reports from explorers, such as Cabeza de Vaca,
De Soto, Niza, Coronado, et al. Koeman (Ortelius) 2. Martin
& Martin 4: "Typical of the magnificent engraving and
printing of the Dutch...Americae sive Novi orbis
nova...rested largely upon Mercator's great world map
of 1569." Nordenskiöld 164:2. Schwartz &
Ehrenberg, pp. 70-71 & plate 32. Tooley, Landmarks
of Mapmaking, p. 204 (illustrating first state of 1570
edition); Mapping of America, p. 320. Wagner,
Northwest Coast 80 (see also p. 71). Wheat,
Transmississippi West 15 & p. 25.
Click for image
101. [MAP: NEW SPAIN]. RUSCELLI, Girolamo. Nveva Hispania tabvla nova. [Venice, 1574]. Copperplate engraved map. 18.5 x 24.6 cm. (7-5/16 x 9-11/16 inches). Full contemporary coloring. Scale not indicated. Seas stipple engraved. Minor void at top centerfold (neatly filled), otherwise very fine, and an excellent impression. This map is rarely found with contemporary coloring.
State 2 (plate mark across top; text on verso
commencing: Nveva Hispania, seconda tavola del mondo
nvovo; graduation marks cross-hatched). For state 1
(1561) see item 99 herein. Burden 31. Martin & Martin
3. Nordenskiöld 220:60. Phillips, Atlases
380. Wagner, Northwest Coast 48n.
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"The First Printed Real Map of New Spain"—Wagner
Mexico City and environs - detail
102. [MAP: NEW SPAIN]. [ORTELIUS, Abraham]. Hispaniae Novae sivæ magnae, recens et vera descriptio. 1579. [Antwerp: Plantin], 1579/. Copperplate engraved map. 34.8 x 50.5 cm. (13-3/4 x 19-15/16 inches). Original full coloring. Scale not indicated. Three ornate, elaborately wrought strapwork cartouches with faces, grotesque heads, birds, cherubs, scroll work, entablatures, etc; two ships on stipple engraved seas. A very good copy with handsome coloring. A few splits and neat old repairs (three small voids, two of which are neatly filled).
This map is from the 1580 German edition of
Ortelius' Atlas, and is identical to the first issue
(Antwerp, 1579). Koeman (Ortelius) 16A. Wagner,
Northwest Coast 119: "The first printed real map of
New Spain." An attractive map, dominated by two elaborate
mannerist cartouches of the late Renaissance period. The
cartographer presents a large-scale detailed depiction of
the Pacific Coast of Mexico between approximate latitudes
17ºN and 23ºN, showing Spanish strongholds and
Indian towns; Mexico City and Guadalajara are among the
hundreds of towns and villages located. The map, which
influenced the cartography of Mexico for the next century,
is remarkable for the large number of cities and towns
located only sixty years after the conquest. Cline, The
Ortelius Maps, suggests Duran or Chaves may have drawn
this prototype delineation for Ortelius.
Item 102 - detail
Item 103 - detail
103. [MAP: AMERICAS]. MERCATOR, Michael. America sive India Nova.... [Duisburg, 1595/1613-1630]. Copperplate engraved map. 36.7 x 45.7 cm. (14-1/2 x 17-15/16 inches). Original full coloring. Scale not indicated. Ornate mannerist decoration with intertwining foliage and cornucopias; four roundel insets (title and maps of Cuba, Haiti, and the Gulf of Mexico); stipple engraved seas. Some creasing and old repairs along blank margins and centerfold. A good impression with excellent original coloring.
The present map is from the Hondius edition of 1613, 1623, or 1630 (identified by the signatures "39" and "M" on the reverse); it is identical to the first appearance of the map (1595). Burden 87: "After the death of Gerard Mercator in 1594 it was left to his son Rumold to publish the last of three parts that formed his famous atlas, the Atlantis Pars Altera . The atlas was finished with a number of maps engraved by various descendents of Gerard. The task of the American map was given to his grandson Michael. The only printed map known to be by him, it is beautifully engraved.... The general outline is taken from Rumold Mercator's world map of 1587, with a little more detail added." Koeman (Mercator) 22, 27A, and 29A. Lowery 81n. Nordenskiöld 145:6. Phillips, Atlases 441. Rosenwald Collection 730. Wagner, Northwest Coast 179. Wheat, Transmississippi West 26. The World Encompassed 134.
This beautifully engraved, well-executed map of the
Americas records the Dutch sphere of influence in the New
World and perpetuates the myth of the Northwest Passage.
The "Mare Dulcium Aquarum" probably reflects the first hint
of the Great Lakes (see Karpinski "Fundamental Maps of the
Great Lakes" #1, in Maps of Famous Cartographers
Depicting North America, p. 81). This famous
delineation of the New World includes all of the place
names employed during the discovery period. The beautiful
insets (including an exquisite little map of the Gulf of
Mexico) show in detail the true heart of earliest America,
from Florida to Yucatan and the West Indies.
104. [MAP: AMERICAS]. [MAGINI, Giovanni Antonio]. America. [Venice, 1596]. Copperplate engraved map. 13.5 x 17.4 cm. (5-5/16 x 6-7/8 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Stipple engraved seas. Very fine.
The present map appeared without change in five
editions of Ptolemy's Geographiae vniversae between
1596 and 1621. Burden 93: "This new edition of Ptolemy's
Geography was edited by Giovanni Antonio Magini, a
noted geographer from Padua. The neatly engraved
copperplates for this work are attributed to Girolamo
Porro." Nordenskiöld 278. Phillips,
Atlases 403, 405, & 436. Wagner, Northwest
Coast 186. Geographically, the map derives from
D'Anania's map of 1582 and Ortelius' map of 1579, retaining
the bulge on the southwest coast of South America. The map
depicts North and South America with the mythical great
southern continent below. This quaint little map had a long
life, appearing as late as 1713 in Raphael Savonarola's
Universus Terrarum Orbis Scriptorum.
Click for image
105. [MAP: WORLD]. [MAGINI, Giovanni]. Vniversi Orbis Descriptio ad vsvm Navigantivm. [Venice, 1596/1598-1621]. 12.8 x 17.6 cm. (5 x 6-15/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Rhumb lines; stipple engraved seas. Very fine, excellent impression.
The map first appeared in a Latin edition of
Ptolemy's Geografia (1596). It was used in several
works from 1597 to 1713, apparently without change. The
present map is from Leonardo Cernoti's Italian translation
of Ptolemy, Geografia, which came out in 1598 and
1621. Phillips, Atlases 405. Shirley 196:
"Magini's mariner's map follows Gerard Mercator's large
world map of 1569 on a much reduced scale and with the
fanciful addition of chains of mountains across the
southern continent.... The accompanying text [below the
map] refers to navigational textbooks such as those by
Pietro Medina, Giovanni Aurigario and Pietro Nonio."
Wagner, Northwest Coast 186.
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Earliest Printed Map of the Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas
106. [MAP: AMERICAS]. ORTELIUS, Abraham. La Florida. Auctore Hieron. Chiaues; Pervviae Avriferæ Regionis Typvs. Didaco Mendezio auctore; Gvastecan Reg. [Antwerp: Plantin, 1584/1598]. Three copperplate engraved maps on one sheet. 33.2 x 46.0 cm. (13-1/8 x 18-1/8 inches). Black & white. Scale not stated. Decorative cartouches; ships; stipple engraved seas. Very fine copy of a most important map of Florida and the Gulf Coast.
This map was first published in the Latin edition of
Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Additamentum
III (Antwerp, 1598). The map appeared without change in
the Latin, French, German, and Spanish translations, from
1584 to 1612. The present map is from the 1598 French
translation (signature 9 on verso). Burden 57: "[La
Florida] is one of the very few maps printed in the
sixteenth century that was based upon original Spanish
sources. They were very protective of their knowledge of
the Americas, a considerable source of their wealth. The
author of this map, Gerónimo de Chaves, was the
Cosmographer Royal to Philip II of Spain." Cumming 5, Plate
9n, and p. 12: "One of the half-dozen most important mother
maps of southeastern North America. This map probably had
more influence than any other map in establishing the
subsequent conception of Florida as including that part of
the present U.S. from the peninsula of Florida northward to
about 40º north latitude and westward to or beyond the
Mississippi." Harrisse, p. 710. Koeman (Ortelius) 32:9.
Lowery 70n. Martin & Martin, pp. 18 & 75n: "Privy
to all of the official reports of the Spanish explorers,
Chaves' map recorded the discoveries of Cabeza de Vaca, de
Soto, and Moscoso.... One of the earliest printed maps of
the territory based on actual observations." Phillips,
Atlases 406. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, pp. 79-81
& plate 35: "The first regional map representation of
Florida." The map of La Florida, based on DeSoto's
manuscript, is the earliest printed map of the Gulf Coast
from Florida to Texas, and is usually considered the first
map attempting to delineate any part of the interior of the
present U.S. It influenced all maps of the region for a
century and is "a primary source document of the first
magnitude in the history of discovery and cartography"
(Rucker Agee, Birmingham Pub. Lib. Cat. 1970).
Click for image
107. [MAP: AMERICAS]. ORTELIUS, Abraham. La Florida. Auctore Hieron. Chiaues; Pervviae Avriferae Regionis Typvs. Didaco Mendezio auctore; Gvastecan Reg. [Antwerp: Plantin, 1584/1602]. Copperplate engraved map. 33.3 x 46.6 cm. (13-1/8 x 18-3/8 inches). Black & white. Scale not stated. Decorative cartouches; ships; stipple engraved seas. Light staining to blank margins. A very good impression, with generous margins.
Another issue of the preceding, from the 1602
Spanish language edition (with signature 9 on text
"First Printed Map to be Devoted to the Pacific Ocean"—Burden
Magellan's ship - detail
108. [MAP: PACIFIC OCEAN]. ORTELIUS, Abraham. Maris Pacifici, (quod volgò Mar del Zur).... [Antwerp], 1589/[1609-1612]. Copperplate engraved map. 34.6 x 50.0 cm. (13-5/8 x 19-11/16 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. Large dedicatory cartouche at lower left with ornamental strapwork, banners, strings of beads, human and lion heads; cartouche at top right with strapwork and ornamentation; Magellan's last surviving ship in Pacific Ocean and other smaller ships in stipple engraved seas. Mild darkening at lower section of centerfold; small rust spotting (mainly confined to lower blank margin at center), generally fine, and an excellent impression of one of the most beautiful of all old maps.
First state, with date 1589 in lower left cartouche. The map first appeared in 1589 in Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Additamentum IV. The present map is from the 1609 or 1612 edition (last line of text on verso commences clase ex, and last line of second paragraph is verbo quidem, meminisse). Burden 74: "One of the most important maps that appeared in the Ortelius atlases, this was the first printed map to be devoted to the Pacific Ocean, the discovery of which is remembered by the depiction, with legend, of Ferdinand Magellan's ship the Victoria. It was engraved at a time of increasing activity in the Pacific with the English having recently begun raiding the Spanish galleons carrying the gold of Peru up the coast to the Isthmus, as well as those marking the arduous journey across from the Philippines to Mexico.... Being one of Ortelius' most desirable maps combined with the fact that it was not issued in the atlas until 1590, it is not as available as the various versions of his map of America." Koeman (Ortelius) 25:19. Nebenzahl, Compass 45:14: "One of the earliest maps to differentiate by name North from South America." Tooley, Landmarks of Mapmaking, pp. 198, 200.
Wagner, Northwest Coast, pp. 73-75 & 156:
"A distinct departure, being unlike any map of the
northwest coast published before 1589.... The peninsula is
named Cali-formia.... The Gulf of California is of
an entirely different form. The origin of the new
nomenclature is a mystery. The opinion has....been
expressed that this map [was] derived from some now unknown
exploration. Aside from the fact that the character of
these new names, almost entirely descriptive, is an
indication of imaginary origin, there is no record of any
voyage along the coast from which the names might have been
obtained. No expedition had appeared on the coast, to our
knowledge, between 1542 and 1589 except that of Pedro de
Unamuno." Wheat, Transmississippi West 24, pp.
109. [MAP: NEW SPAIN]. HERRERA Y TORDESILLAS, Antonio de. Descripçion de las Yndias del Norte 2. [Amsterdam: Colinius, 1622]. Copperplate engraved map. 21.4 x 29.6 cm. (8-7/16 x 11-5/8 inches). Black and white. Scale not stated. A few tolerably small wormholes at lower blank margin, generally fine. The map very seldom appears on the market.
Herrera's map first appeared in Madrid in 1601 in
his Descripción de las Indias Occidentales.
The present map is a re-engraving made for the 1622
translations into Dutch, French, and Latin. There are
slight changes in layout of the title and shading. The
title is at top left; YNDIAS in title; 2
below title. Burden 197: "The lack of any great detail
on this uncommon map reflects the official policy of
protecting Spanish knowledge of the New World. Despite this
the outline of the map is accurate for the period
concerned." Borba de Moraes I, p. 337-38. Martin &
Martin 7 (describing the 1601 edition): "Spain did permit
some compilation and distribution of information concerning
the New World, with the best work done by Antonio de
Herrera y Tordesillas, a well-educated and capable scholar
who had rare access to the archives in Spain.... Using
great care and discretion, Herrera worked through the
voluminous archives that documented the early decades of
Spanish discovery and exploration. [Herrera's monumental
four-volume work] recorded Spain's New World activities
from the time of Columbus through 1555." Palau 224294.
Herrera, official historian to Philip II, III, and IV, had
access to many documents since lost, and the 1622
translations made his cornerstone work more generally
available outside of Spain. Although this scarce map lacks
detail, from an aesthetic viewpoint, its uncluttered
presentation is rather refreshing. Unusual.
Click for image
Item 110 - detail
110. [MAP: GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN]. BLAEU, Willem Jansz. Insvlæ Americanæ in Oceano Septentrionali, cum Terris adiacentibus. [Amsterdam, 1635/1640-1655]. Copperplate engraved map. 38.4 x 52.9 cm. (15-1/8 x 20-3/4 inches). Black and white. Scale: 1 inch = approximately 34 German miles. Cartouche at lower left with armorial shield: lady with mirror and two snakes, putti reading a book; cartouche at top: two putti with lizards, snakes, bat, and turtle; cartouche at lower right: two putti holding navigational instruments. Rhumb lines, three compass roses, ships. Mild foxing, otherwise a fine copy of this very handsome map.
This map was first published in 1635 in the
simultaneously issued Latin, French, and Dutch editions of
Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Additamentum
III. It appears that the map was unaltered from 1635 to
1667. The present map is from either the 1640, 1645, 1650,
or 1655 Latin edition. Burden 242: "Cartographically the
map draws on the extremely rare chart by Hesel Gerritsz, c.
1631. The area of coverage is exactly the same with the
exception of Blaeu's addition of the west coast of Central
America. The nomenclature of the North American part is
virtually identical, the only notable addition being the
naming of VIRGINIA. It reflects firsthand knowledge
of Gerritsz during his voyage to South America and the West
Indies in 1628.... It seems likely that a Spanish chart was
used as the nomenclature along the south-east coast lacks
any of the French influences often seen at the time."
Koeman I, p. 94n. Portinaro & Knirsch, The
Cartography of North America, pp. 178-79.
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