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EARLY CARTOGRAPHIC MENTION OF PIKES PEAK
94. [DODGE EXPEDITION (1835)]. [KINGSBURY, GAINES
P.]. [Caption title]: Colonel Dodges Journal...A
Report of the Expedition of the Dragoons, Under the Command
of Colonel Henry Dodge, to the Rocky Mountains,
During the Summer of 1835. Washington: HRD181, 1835. 37
pp., 2 engraved folding maps with original outline
coloring: (1) [STEEN, Enoch]. Map Showing the Land
Assigned to Emigrant Indians West of Arkansas &
Missouri (47.2 x 45.1 cm; 18-1/2 x 17-3/4 inches); (2)
[Untitled map showing location of Native American tribes
and "Route of the Dragoons under the command of Col. Dodge
in 1835"] Estimated Distance 1645 Miles by Lieut. Steen
United States Dragoons (49.4 x 86.6 cm; 19-1/2 x 34
inches). 8vo, modern half brown levant morocco over marbled
boards. Very fine, maps superb.
First edition, House issue. Claussen & Friis 127 & 128. Graff 2335. Howes K161. Jones 985. Matthews, p. 274. Plains & Rockies III:63: "The maps are of great rarity"; IV:63: "The expedition left Fort Leavenworth on May 29, 1835, proceeding up the South Platte River to the Rocky Mountains, thence to Fountain Creek and Bents Fort; they returned down the Arkansas River to the Santa Fe Trail and back to Fort Leavenworth, arriving there September 16. The detachment visited the Omaha, Pawnee, Arikara, and other tribes along the upper Platte and Arkansas rivers during a march of sixteen hundred miles." Rittenhouse 348. Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West 418 & 421, & pp. 149-51: "Early cartographic mention [of Pikes Peak]....[Steens map 2] is well executed...Steen had a long and interesting career in the army. He was post commandant at Fort Belknap, Texas, in 1854 when R. B. Marcy was there on the survey of lands for Texas Indian Reservations [see The Handbook of Texas Online: Fort Belknap]." John L. Allen ("Patterns of Promise: Mapping the Plains and Prairies, 1800-1860" in Mapping the North American Plains [Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1983], p. 49) designates Steens map (map 1 above) as "one of the three most important maps of the decade" and comments: "In the summer of 1835, a detachment of dragoons under the command of Col. Henry Dodge was sent westward across the plains to the Rockies with a mission of locating tribal patterns. Accompanying this expedition was Lt. Enoch Steen. His manuscript map [source of the first printed map, listed above] of the dragoons route shows both the state of geographical knowledge on the plains and tribal patterns on the frontier in the mid-thirties" & (p. 118 & Fig. 7.4): "Steens map [second map above] was perhaps the first published map to label major tributaries of the Arkansas River which the Santa Fe Road crossed and to identify the general locations of the Pawnee and Otoe villages on the Platte River, Bents newly established trading house on the upper Arkansas, and Council Grove and Pawnee Rock along the Santa Fe route. The map showed general locations of the Kiowa, Comanche, and Cheyenne Plains Indians tribes....While Steen erred in several instances, he did portray a number of cultural features on the landscape as well as identify important physical features....Secretary of War Lewis Cass wrote in his 1835 report that The regiment of dragoons has been usefully employed in penetrating into the Indian country...and in adding to our geographical knowledge of those remote regions."