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Auction 4: Lots 51-77

(prices realized are shown in bold following the estimated prices)


51. CISNEROS, José. Original signed pen and ink drawing of two vaqueros attempting to control a stampeding herd of longhorns. Undated. Signed below image at right: J. Cisneros, Paisano. Approximately 7-5-8 x 13-3/8 inches on Strathmore board. Fine.

A very spirited drawing—two galloping vaqueros attempt to control a thundering herd of wild-eyed longhorns; at front foreground one vaquero whirls his lariat high, while another to the right waves his hat; a flock of birds flies overhead in a cloud of dust, and a lone jackrabbit scurries ahead of the racing herd. El Paso artist Cisneros has executed this drawing with his usual careful attention to detail. Samuels, Encyclopedia of Artists of the American West, pp. 95-96.
($750-1,000)


A CLASSIC OVERLAND — MINT IN ORIGINAL PRINTED WRAPPERS

52. CLARKE, A. B. Travels in Mexico and California: Comprising a Journal of a Tour from Brazos Santiago, through Central Mexico, by Way of Monterey, Chihuahua, the Country of the Apaches, and the River Gila, to the Mining Districts of California. Boston: Wright & Hasty’s Steam Press, 1852. 138 pp. 12mo, original beige printed wrappers. Mint—perhaps the finest copy in the world.

First edition. Cowan, p. 128. Edwards, p. 35. Graff 746. Hill, p. 54: "An important and rare overland account." Howell, California 50:376A: "His narrative provides the first printed description of the route north from Camargo, Mexico, through Chihuahua and Sonora to the Gila River of Arizona." Howes C451. Jones 1275. Kurutz, Gold Rush 138: “Clark, a native of Conway, Massachusetts, sailed from New York on January 29, 1849, as a member of the Hampden Mining Company. After arriving in central Mexico, he proceeded westward via Arizona and the Gila River. He arrived in Los Angeles on July 9. In the Gila area, he met Dr. [Joseph E.] Field, one of the two survivors of the infamous Fannin massacre. By August 2, the New Englander labored in the Tuolumne Diggings. He spent the winter of 1849 and 1850 in San Francisco and in the summer of 1850 worked on the Yuba River. Only the last five pages of his account describe life in the mines.... According to a note, dated July 2, 1852, [Clarke] published this account for his friends.” Plains & Rockies IV:210. Wheat, Books of the California Gold Rush 41. A little-known source on Dr. Joseph E. Field, the “roving and adventurous” (Streeter 1202) surgeon who escaped death at the Goliad Massacre by tending the wounded Mexicans. “Field and Clarke became messmates at the Pima village in Arizona...and made the rest of the trip together” (Streeter).
($1,500-2,500)

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CAMPAIGN FLAG PROMOTING WESTERN EXPANSION—1844

53. [CLAY-FRELINGHUYSEN-STOCKTON-HOUSTON CAMPAIGN BANNER]. Campaign banner from Henry Clay’s presidential campaign of 1844. Lithograph and stencil on cotton. Large black and white circular bust portrait of Clay within ornate oak-leaf border, lithographed directly onto cloth at upper left (approximately 10-7/8 x 7-7/8 inches), set within stenciled blue field (17-3/8 x 15-1/2 inches) with 26 white stars, 13 red and white stripes stenciled at sides and below blue field; lettering at right: CLAY | FRELINGHUYSEN | STOCKTON | & HOUSTON.; overall measurement 27 x 37 inches, irregular. Right corners missing (upper loss, about 1-1/2 inches square; lower, about 4 x 3 x 5 inches). Some surface soiling and staining (white fabric age-toned), a few other small tears and holes (no losses; two holes mended), occasional fraying, fabric creased at edges. Right bar of “N” in Frelinghuysen incomplete on banner surface image (sewn under right seam). Considering the fragile and ephemeral nature of such textiles, the condition is very acceptable, with a good, strong impression of the lithographed portrait and the stencil colors only slightly faded. Exceedingly rare and unusual Americana. Not in Herbert R. Collins, Threads of History: America Recorded on Cloth (Washington: Smithsonian, 1979); however, Rex Stark of Gardner, Massachusetts, reports one other copy in a private collection.

This remarkable banner is especially intriguing for the people whom it associates. Finding Henry Clay and F. T. Frelinghuysen together is to be expected because since they were presidential and vice-presidential candidates on the Whig ticket in 1844; but why Houston (Sam?) and Stockton (Robert F.?). Such banners were made to promote political campaigns, and the basic banner often was augmented with names or phrases appealing to particular groups of voters with regional or special interests. In this instance, the merging of names was a mere fantasy inspired by political expediency. It seems clear that this specimen of the banner was aimed at ardent Westward expansionists, with its inclusion of two early and vigorous proponents of Manifest Destiny—Sam Houston and Robert F. Stockton (Hart, Companion to California, p. 430; New Handbook VI, p. 109).

The election year 1844 found Texas annexation uppermost in the public mind. The Whigs nominated Clay, making no reference to Texas in their platform, and dark horse James K. Polk grasped control of the Democratic Party, advocating taking the whole of Oregon and “reannexation” of the Texas Republic. In the campaign, Clay, who earlier had expressed opposition to annexation, attempted to use his “Alabama letters” to convince Southern voters that he favored the annexation of Texas at the earliest possible moment. As is often the case with such political waffling, this helped Clay in the South, but cost him in the North. With the desertion of thousands of New York abolitionists, he lost New York, and with it, the election.

We think it reasonable to assume that it is Robert F. Stockton’s name on the banner. Stockton is one of those figures in U.S. history who does not have a Big Name, but who had a hand in many pivotal events. As early as 1825, Stockton was politically active, delivering stirring speeches promoting liberation of America from its Spanish “oppressors” and urging colonization societies in Africa. He and Frelinghuysen then resided in New Jersey. In the 1840 election Stockton actively campaigned against Van Buren, whom he saw as a usurper of democratic principles and states’ rights. “The novelty of a young officer of the navy appearing in the political arena...excited much remark, while the ability and eloquence which he displayed astonished and electrified his hearers [and he was accorded] high rank among the most popular orators of the day” (Samuel J. Bayard, A Sketch of the Life of Com. Robert F. Stockton, New York: Derby & Jackson, 1856, p. 78).

After Congress adopted the resolution annexing Texas to the Union on February 28, 1845, Tyler ordered Stockton to command the squadron that sailed to Texas to deliver the annexation papers and to prevent Mexican invasions while annexation was deliberated. Once in Texas, Stockton busily promoted annexation to the Texans, plotted to occupy the Rio Grande Valley with Texas volunteers, proposed that Republic President Anson Jones make war with Mexico as a prelude to annexation, and urged General Sidney Sherman to attack Matamoros, promising to support him with U.S. naval force. Stockton’s superiors warned him against rashness, and then gave him command of the Pacific fleet. Stockton sailed to California with sealed orders (to “help,” however appropriate). On July 15, 1846, Stockton prematurely seized Monterey, commissioned Frémont and Gillespie as high-ranking officers of the California Battalion, captured Santa Barbara and Los Angeles without resistance, declared California to be U.S. territory, and named himself governor and commander-in-chief. Charged with exceeding his authority, he resigned his Navy commission in 1850, later serving as New Jersey Senator (1851-1853).
($6,000-8,000)


54. CLEMENS, Samuel L. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer’s Comrade). New York: Webster, 1885. 366 pp., frontispiece, frontispiece portrait, text illustrations. Small 4to, original green pictorial cloth stamped in gilt and black. Spinal extremities and corners slightly frayed, upper hinge a bit weak (but unbroken), small tear to rear free endpaper, back pastedown lightly foxed, but generally a very good copy, with contemporary gift inscription dated October 28, 1885, and subsequent gift inscription from 1924.

First American edition, first state points (title is a cancel and has copyright date 1884; “Him and another Man” listed at page 88; page 57 uncorrected; with terminal blank 23/8; photogravure plate in state 1) but p. 283 (with Silas Phelps illustration) a cancel and final numeral of page 155 in a larger font. BAL 3415. Downs, Books that Changed America, p. xiv: “The nearest thing that we have to a national epic.” Grolier American Hundred 87. Hart, The Popular Book, p. 150. Johnson, Highspots of American Literature, p. 23.
($1,000-2,000)


THE UNRAVELING OF BUFFALO BILL’S DAZZLING EMPIRE

55. CODY, William Frederick (“Buffalo Bill”) & Gordon William Lillie (“Pawnee Bill”). Archive of twenty-eight original manuscripts and letters, signed (a few printed items) by and about Cody, the legendary plainsman and showman, and his partner Lillie, and their ventures, Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show and Pawnee Bill’s Far East Show. Various places, mostly 1909-1914, a few items from the early 1920s, and a 1936 telegram from Tom Mix to Lillie. Very fine to very good, most signed by Cody and/or Lillie.

From his own life experience on the frontier, William F. Cody (1846-1917), created a West that indelibly survives in the imagination of America and the world (Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography I, pp. 293-94). The focus of the cohesive archive being offered is the final phase and unraveling of the incredibly successful empire forged by Cody and his partner Lillie (1860-1942; Thrapp II, pp. 855-56). The two showmen, “The Two Bills,” merged their operations in 1908, but unfortunate outside investments drained Cody of resources, which forced him under the yoke of the unscrupulous Harry Tammen. See Don Russell, The Wild West, Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum, 1970. Materials from the archive include:

Ornate engraved bank draft with portraits of Cody and Lillie, payable to Mrs. Gordon W. Lillie, signed by G. W. Lillie on behalf of Pawnee Bill’s Wild West Co, endorsed by Mrs. Lillie. July 31, 1909.

Autograph note from Cody to Lillie, undated, but on the verso of another letter (written by Bill Winget in 1911, on printed stationery for "The Merry War"). Cody outlines his financial difficulties and requests a delay of sixty days on his next payment to Lillie. Winget's letter counsels Cody against the release of three films prior to Cody’s “farewell performance,” claiming that the films will adversely affect show attendance. Rare documentation on the old showman's early foray into films to try to ameliorate his financial difficulties.

Autograph letter, signed, from Cody to Lillie. Waterville, Maine, June 2, 1911 (on illustrated stationery and envelope for “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Combined with Pawnee Bill’s Great Far East,” with their portraits). Cody laments the decline of the show in New England (“Am glad you are not here to see this sucker’s tepees. But this is the worst and the last, although we have a few bad ones yet, but not as bad as these”). He asks Lillie to stop in Kansas City to visit Col. D. B. Dyer. Cody’s association with Dyer in the Cody-Dyer Mining & Milling Company was ruinous. Over a dozen years of their partnership, Dyer was able to extract $500,000 from Cody while enticing him with reports of great riches just around the corner.

Autograph letter, signed, from Cody to Lillie. Agua Caliente, Arizona (on “Hotel Modesti” stationery and illustrated envelope marked “Personal—Please deliver quick”), March 8, 1912. A very important letter illuminating Cody’s financial problems, especially the Col. Dyer mining fiasco. Still trusting Col. Dyer, Cody writes: “I made a lot of changes. I had suspected for a long time that the Getchells were not toting fair, and I set a trap for them while I was east. On my return our attorney had them dead to rights.... Col. Dyer sent a first class bookkeeper.” Cody writes about his wildcat oil venture in Arizona and problems raising money to pay debts. Unable to sell either his Nebraska or Wyoming land holdings, he is nonetheless confident: “This summer when the Park trade gets good I can sell my hotels and my hotel farm. And I’ll sell them. And pay you every dollar. Without we can make the proffits [sic] of the show pay you. I more than appreciate all you have done. And I assure you that I’ll pay you every cent and with interest.”

Two contracts between Cody and Lillie and the United States Printing and Lithograph Company. New York, 1913. Each contract signed by both Cody and Lillie, the first bearing the embossed corporate seal of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West & Pawnee Bill’s Far East Combined. Both contracts relate to production of publicity posters, programs, oversize banners, commercial materials, and post cards for their combined shows, including Rough Riders booklets and Overland Trail newspapers. The first contract bears a legal exhibit stamp apparently relating to the July 1913 attachment proceedings against the show at the instigation of the deceitful Henry Tammen, who had loaned $20,000 to The Two Bills. The contracts, totaling in excess of $80,000, are rare original documentation on the colorful printed and pictorial materials created in conjunction with the Cody-Lillie show, with details on twenty-seven of the imprints that are so prized today.

Typed letter signed from Tammen’s assistant at the Denver Post, to Lillie. Denver, Colorado, July 16, 1913. With printed envelope of The Denver Post marked "Special Delivery." Contains an ominous paragraph regarding The Two Bills’ default on their loan from Harry H. Tammen, owner of the Denver Post. “I have not heard Mr. Tammen express himself one way or the other regarding the note. He seems to treat the matter lightly and I am, therefore, in no position to give an opinion as to how he will treat the matter, but in your place, if I could do it, I would immediately send him the $5,000 and write him a decent letter.” Only a few days later Judge Perry of the Denver District Court attached the properties of the Show, forcing the show out of business and Cody into a demeaning relationship with Tammen.

Telegram from Billboard Pub. Co. to Lillie, c/o Buffalo Bill [&] Pawnee Bill Shows. Cincinnati, July 22, 1913. “Rumored in New York that you are negotiating sale of all or part of two Bills shows with Harry Tammen....” By now rumors of the demise of the show had reached Cincinnati.

Letter from Cody to Lillie. Cody, Wyoming, October 3, 1913 (on printed stationery for “The Irma,” Cody’s hotel in the Rockies). Cody blithely writes of his hunting trip with the Prince of Monaco and millionaire Charles G. Gates, concluding with the recommendation that they accept the advice of Selden Bacon and settle the “Winch matter” for $500.

Interest coupon on a $25,000 note, signed by Cody and his wife, Lulu. September 14, 1911. With transmittal letter signed, from James M. Hamilton to "Friend Lillie." October 3, 1913, acknowledging receipt of a check. With the letter and coupon is a duplicate copy of the entire note.

Three letters from the foreman of the Cody Ranch in North Platte, Nebraska to Lillie. January 3, May 2, and May 10, [1914 or 1915?]. Ranch news, alluding to the possibility that Lillie may sell the ranch. “If you are going to cut the place up and sell, will it pay you to work this ditch over?”

Sells—Floto Circus Company handbill printed in red and black: Warning! The undersigned is the owner of the names, trade names, titles and good will thereunto belonging: “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West”.... [1922]. With typewritten note: "What do you think of this,——Looks as if they were figuring Putting this Show out soon." The Sells-Floto Circus was the creation of Harry Tammen, who used Cody’s $20,000 promissory note to close down The Two Bills Show, forcing Cody to join Tammen’s sleazy operation in 1914. This rare broadside documents the melancholy transition of Cody’s glorious Wild West shows. The West was ebbing, and so had Cody. For two years before his death in 1917, the aging, debilitated Cody was forced to work for Tammen's dog-and-pony show, plagued by rheumatism and prostate trouble, barely able to stay in the saddle. Cody finally escaped, shortly before his death, by threatening Tammen with his six-shooter. The ultimate sting came after his death, when Tammen tried to steal even his name by printing this notice.

Accompanying the above handbill is a typed letter, signed, from J. C. Miller to Lillie. Bliss, Oklahoma (on “Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Trust” stationery), March 21, 1922. “I am enclosing you herewith one of the Sells-Floto circulars. Did not know whether you had seen it. Tex Cooper mailed it to me.” The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch was the most successful of the post-war Wild West shows.

Autograph letter, signed, from Lillie to the principals of the Sells-Floto Circus. Yale, Oklahoma, n.d. (pictorial stationery of “The Buffalo Refining Company, G. W. Lillie, President”). Responding to the Sells—Floto warning notice handbill above, Lillie places the Circus on legal notice that he is “the owner of the titles and names - Wm F. Cody Buffalo Bill and Gordon W. Lillie ‘Pawnee Bill.’ - And will resist to the fullest extent of the law any attempt to use them or any part of them unless satisfactory arrangement is made with me.”

Tom Mix’s telegram to Lillie, sending condolences on the death of Lillie’s wife. Statesville, North Carolina, 1936. “Dear Major— Words are useless Stop You know how sorry I am Your Friend Tom Mix.” Lillie’s wife had been fatally injured in an automobile accident, in which Lillie suffered permanent impairment.

Three telegrams, one check, one sheet with text for two telegrams, all signed or in the hand of Lillie, various other ephemera related to Lillie and the show, and one curious photographic postcard regarding an 1865 sketch of Wild Bill Hickok.

An unusual item in the archive is an illustrated 15-leaf printed promotional for the 1922 serial film: In the Days Of Buffalo Bill. Very rare—unknown even to Universal Studios, whose precursor made this “education serial.” The brochure with press releases was created to promote an early film celebrating Buffalo Bill and the Old West. Released five years after Cody’s death, In the Days Of Buffalo Bill was filmed at Universal Studio and Yermo, in the Mojave Desert. Pioneer director Edward Laemmle directed the film, and Art Acord starred as “Art Taylor, daring young rider of the Pony Express.” (Acord, a violent, mercurial Oklahoman fell prey to liquor and drugs, was one of the early cowboy movie stars; he disappeared into Mexico in 1931, stabbed to death by a jealous husband, according to one story.) Duke Lee, who worked as rider and roper for Buffalo Bill's show for seven years, played the part of Buffalo Bill. Illustrations include scenes from the movie, images of Cody, and just about every red-button heroic figure and event that writer Robert Dillon could conjure: Lincoln and his Cabinet, Chief Sitting Bull, Driving the Golden Spike, Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant shaking hands, etc. The film recreates the life of Buffalo Bill in all the archetypal glory that Cody strove so earnestly to promote. Cody and his extravaganza here become a metaphor to express shared political attitudes in the United States and an emotional yearning for a Wild West that had disappeared. (28 items)
($10,000-20,000)

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56. [CONFEDERATE BOND]. TEXAS. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Homeographic Texas Confederate cotton bond printed in sepia ink, completed in manuscript, commencing: No. [13] $[1,000.00] Issued in accordance with an Act of the Legislature, Approved December 16, 1863, providing for the purchase of Cotton....the State of Texas is indebted to [J. T. & Wm. Brady]...in the sum of [One Thousand] Dollars.... Austin [May 11] 186[5]...Original by W. Von Rosenberg. Homeographed by W. De Ryee, Chemist Nitro & M. Corps T. M. D. [i.e., Nitro & Mining Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department]. [Austin, ca. 1864-65]. 7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches, printed in bronze ink on recto and verso, illustration of old state capitol building on recto. Signed by Governor Pendleton Murrah and other officials. Very fine and handsome.

An unusual Confederate imprint issued during the last days of the Texas Confederacy, in a last-ditch effort to raise funds to continue the struggle. William von Rosenberg, draftsman and topographical artist who worked with artist Karl Friedrich Hermann Lungkwitz, designed this illustrated Confederate bond. "During the Civil War, DeRyee...served as chemist for the Confederate Nitrate and Mining Bureau which investigated nitre caves in Texas. In 1861, he was appointed state chemist by the Military Board; later he was chemist for the Trans-Mississippi Department... Texas used DeRyee's printing process, ‘homeography,’ to print its cotton bonds" (New Handbook II, pp. 604-05). See also Steinfeldt, Art for History’s Sake, pp. 135 & 195.
($500-750)


57. [CONFEDERATE NEWSPAPER]. Reporter Bulletin. Tyler, Texas, February 11, 1865. 1 p., printed in two columns. Small narrow folio (13-3/8 x 6-1/2 inches). Browned and friable, split at centerfold and a few small holes (loss of some letters and a few words). Needs stabilization.

This is a regularly published supplemental issue to the Tyler Reporter, which commenced operation in 1854 and continued to be published until about 1878, when the block of buildings in which it was located was partially destroyed by fire. At the time this issue was published, the Reporter was owned by James P. Douglas, who rose to the rank of major and commanded the Dallas Light Artillery, the only Texas artillery unit to serve east of the Mississippi (New Handbook II, p. 688). While Douglas was away at war, H. V. Hamilton, co-owner, served as editor. The recurring tone of the articles and letters reflects the general climate of Confederate Texas during the waning days of the Civil War. The populace is urged to remain calm, heed their leaders, continue the struggle, and ignore rumors of peace. Among the news is the report by “A Soldier” about the injury at the Battle of Pleasant Hill of Colonel Ed Clark, who served as Governor of Texas after Sam Houston’s resignation. Rumors of a great victory by Robert E. Lee are reported in a letter to the editor.
($250-450)


58. CONNOR, Seymour V. (ed.). Texas Treasury Papers, Letters Received in the Treasury Department of the Republic of Texas, 1836-1846. Austin: Texas State Library, 1955. [2] x, 402 + [4] 403-836 + [4] 837-1246 + [6] 270 [7] pp. 4 vols., 4to, original blue buckram. Very fine, with editor’s presentation: “To my friend, Bob Medlar, whose interest in the Republic of Texas would have made him a striking figure one hundred years ago—when most people were trying to get rid of the ‘worthless’ paper.” Very scarce.

First edition. Basic Texas Books 69n. Previously unpublished correspondence on the perilous fiscal history of the Republic and the struggles of Texas government officials to save the young nation from complete bankruptcy. (4 vols.)
($250-450)


A HANDSOME SET OF COOK’S THIRD VOYAGE

59. COOK, James & James King. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean...for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere...1776-1780.... London: H. Hughs for G. Nicol and T. Cadell, 1785. [10] xcvi, 421 + [14] 548 + [14] 556 pp., 24 copper-engraved maps and plates (some folding) + Atlas, 63 copper-engraved maps and plates (some folding). Text: 3 vols., 4to, contemporary mottled calf (expertly rebacked in sympathetic calf), spine gilt with raised bands, navy blue calf labels. Atlas: Large folio, late nineteenth-century brown morocco over brown cloth. Occasional minor foxing and faint offsetting to plates. A very handsome, desirable, and complete copy, with good, strong impressions of the engravings. Armorial bookplate. It is increasingly difficult to find a complete set of this classic voyage in fine collector’s condition.

Second edition. The editio princeps came out in 1784 and was so popular that the first printing is said to have sold out within three days. The present edition differs chiefly in the composition of the title-pages and the introduction; the medallions of Cook and King that appear on the title-pages of the second edition are seldom seen in the first edition. Resetting of text has resulted in slight variation of collation, e.g., Vol. II has 548 text pages rather than 549; Vol. III has 556 text pages rather than 558; and the terminal ad present in the first edition was omitted. As usual, the Death of Cook plate, separately issued, is not present.

Cook's third voyage was probably the most important of his three voyages, and certainly the most significant for a collection of Americana. The map was pivotal, being the first acceptably accurate map of the Northwest Coast. Among the many outstanding plates by artist J. Webber are natives, views, and artifacts of the Northwest coast and the Hawaiian Islands. Hill, pp. 61-62. Holmes 47n. Howes C729a (collation incorrect). Lada-Mocarski 37n. Majors, Northwest Coast, Chapter 44 & 42n. Mitchell Library 1552. Printing & the Mind of Man 223n: "The third voyage was undertaken in search of the North-West Passage.... Cook sailed to North America, discovering on the way the Cook Islands and the Hawaiian group. Cook earned his place in history by opening up the Pacific to western civilization and by the foundation of British Australia. The world was given for the first time an essentially complete knowledge of the Pacific Ocean." Skelton, Explorers’ Maps, pp. 233-45. (4 vols.)
($7,500-12,500)


MERRILL ARISTOCRAT

60. [COX, James]. Historical and Biographical Record of the Cattle Industry and the Cattlemen of Texas and Adjacent Territory. St. Louis: Woodward & Tiernan, 1895. 743 pp., colored frontispiece, 272 illustrations (mostly photographic). Folio, original full black morocco, stamped in gilt and blind (rebacked, portion of original spine preserved, binding worn and dry), pp. 303-306 worn and torn, mild to moderate foxing, slightly musty. When one can locate a copy of this rare book, it usually looks as if it has gone through a big stampede. Apparently, this copy suffered only a small stampede.

First edition. Adams, Herd 493: "One of the`big four’ cattle books. An important history of the cattle industry, and no collector's library would be complete without it. It is rarely found with the frontispiece, and since it is an unusually heavy book and the leather has deteriorated with age, its backstrip is usually missing or in bad condition." Basic Texas Books 34: "One of the rarest Texas books...a gold mine for research into the cowboy and cattle industry...one of the...best contemporary accounts of the history of the Texas cattle trade." Graff 891. Howes C820. Merrill, Aristocrats of the Cow Country, p. 17: "Supposedly most of the first edition was destroyed in a warehouse fire, hence its rarity today." Reese, Six Score 24: “A cornerstone in any range library. I have never seen a really fine copy.”
($3,000-5,000)


61. CRUIKSHANK, George (illustrator). ROSCOE, Thomas (editor). The Novelist’s Library [series title]. London: Cochrane and Pickersgill, 1831-1833. 98 etched and engraved plates (over 70 by Cruikshank). 19 vols., 16mo, full tan straight grain morocco gilt, extra-gilt spines with raised bands, burgundy and black calf labels, inner gilt dentelles, t.e.g. (by Bayntun of Bath). Minor shelf wear, upper cover of one vol. rubbed, one cover neatly reattached, generally a fine set in handsome bindings, plates clean and bright.

First edition. Cohn 701-11. Johnson, George Cruikshank: The Collection at Princeton, p. 16: “From 1831 to 1833 Cruikshank was engaged in decorating seventeen of the nineteen volumes of Roscoe’s Novelist’s Library. He executed in all seventy-four etchings for this popular series of reprints of novels.” The novels comprising the set are: Smollett’s, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, The Adventures of Roderick Random, and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (2 vols.); Fielding’s The History of Tom Jones (2 vols.); The Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and The History of Amelia (2 vols.); Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefield, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy (2 vols.); Cervantes’ The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote (3 vols.); Le Sage’s The Adventures of Gil Blas (2 vols.); DeFoe’s The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (2 vols.). (19 vols.)
($500-1,000)


62. DABAN Y RAMÍREZ DE ARELLANO, Luis (editor). Situación politica del Departamento Oriental de la Isla de Cuba, desde el 9 de junio de 1878 al 22 de junio de 1879 siendo Comandante General el Excmo. Sr. Mariscal de Campo.... Santiago de Cuba: Sección Tipográfica del Estado Mayor, 1881. 123 pp. 8vo, contemporary burgundy sheep over marbled boards. Stain on lower spine where label removed, binding rubbed and lightly stained, occasional light foxing, and a few tiny wormholes. Very scarce.

First edition. Palau 314981. A collection of military dispatches and correspondence documenting events after the unsuccessful Ten Years War of rebellion against Spanish rule in Cuba, and the attempt to institute government reforms. Though written from the Spanish viewpoint, the treatment is very even-handed with respect to the Cubans.
($200-400)


ORIGINAL MINING CLAIMS LEDGER - DAKOTA TERRITORY 1876-1884

63. [DAKOTA TERRITORY: BLACK HILLS GOLD RUSH]. Original manuscript ledger of mining and land claims. Deadwood City, Dakota Territory, 1876-1884. The manuscript is divided into two parts: (1) Copies of abstracts of titles and claim deeds (organized by lode or claim) for Lawrence County, Dakota Territory, April 24, 1876-June 25, 1884 (most entries date between 1876 and 1879). 1-290 pp. (2) Notices of legal actions relating to mining and land claims, June 10, 1879-May 17, 1880. 300-321 pp. Very large folio ledger, original brown calf gilt, inset panels of suede on covers branded with Greek key pattern, gilt-lettered spine with oversize raised bands. Exceptionally fine, neatly written in ink in a very legible hand, a few marginal annotations in another hand. An imposing tome.

This important manuscript ledger documents the beginning and peak of the Black Hills Gold Rush that brought thousands of miners and speculators to the northern region, concentrated mostly within a ten-mile radius of Deadwood. One can also follow certain mining trends in the ledger, such as the move from placer to quartz and hydraulic mining. The Custer expedition of 1874 into the Black Hills brought back reports of gold that resulted in a stampede of miners to the region. Although the land had been guaranteed to the Sioux Nation by the Fort Laramie Treaty, the U.S. government was unable to stem the vast tide of invading miners, and a train of events that changed the region forever was set into motion. By the autumn of 1875, attempts to exclude miners from the Hills were virtually abandoned. The stampede of 1876, the Sioux War, and the Custer Massacre of June 25, 1876 followed. The treaty ceding the region to the U.S. was negotiated in September of 1876. On April 26, 1876, a string of little mining camps below a gulch filled with underbrush and dead wood was organized as Deadwood City. The town became a wide-open outpost of frontier violence, the wildest, wickedest, and most flamboyant mining town on the American frontier, and inhabitants Wild Bill Hickok and Calamity Jane became legends. Our ledger contains original source material on the pivotal years of Deadwood’s transition from Native American to Anglo occupation and land use.

The ledger lists each and every claimant (includes a sprinkling of women) and locates town lots and mining claims (Independence Lode, Golden Arrow Lode, Clara No. 2 Lode, Montenegro Quartz Mine, Great Eastern Lode, Golden Rule Lode, Rattler Lode, Badger Lode, Grand Deposit Lode, Ophir Ledge, Old Brig Lode, Father De Smet Lode, Black Hills Gold Gulch Mining Company, etc.). Also set out are water rights, records of claims made by unpaid workers, mortgage deeds, powers of attorney, quitclaim deeds, law suits, etc. Before ratification of the Sioux Treaty of February, 1877, no legal authority was in place in the region, and residents of the Black Hills had to depend on themselves for the protection of their interests and the maintenance of order. This ledger is an abstract created to provide a reference tool for settlement of disputes that frequently led to violence, and even murder. Many fascinating references are found in the ledger; for example, on page 24, a deed holder Jean Glass mentions the U.S. takeover of Native American lands:

Now, Therefor[e], the Congress of the United States having by Treaty on or about the 28th day of February, A.D. 1877, recovered to the Citizens of the United States, the legal right to locate Real Estate in the Late Indian Reservation heretofore commonly known as ‘The Black Hills’ the undersigned hereby locates and claims under the laws of the United States, the laws of Dakota Territory and all local laws and custom Lots Nos. 13-1/2 and 14-1/2 in Block 2 on Main Street in the City of Deadwood, County of Lawrence Territory Dakota....

($7,500-10,000)


64. [DAKOTA TERRITORY: BUFFALO GAP]. Original manuscript ledger containing: (1) Frémont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad Company. Registry of freight received at Buffalo Gap Terminal. Buffalo Gap, Dakota Territory, January 7 to August 31, 1887. 77 pp. (2) Sheidley Cattle Company (later, Sheffield & Stewart Cattle Company). Registry of “Cattle Bought” (includes brands) and expense accounts (itemization of cattle and services purchased). Buffalo Gap, South Dakota, February 6, 1896 to October 26, 1898. 13 pp. (3) Buffalo Gap Fair Association. Financial records, prize entries, sports contests, etc., covering four years, ca. 1900. 158 pp. Folio, original black leather over black cloth, printed label of Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad Company. Covers worn and stained, internally fine.

Ephemeral Western local history, recording material culture, ranching, and social history. The records of the Sheidley Cattle Company are a type of documentation seldom encountered.
($300-500)


65. [DAKOTA TERRITORY: FORT SULLY]. [YOUNG, N. H.? (Post Trader)]. Original manuscript account book. Fort Sully, Dakota Territory, January 1880 to June 1884. 140 pp. Folio, original suede and leather, black calf labels. Some outer wear and staining, 36 pages with adhesive stains where newspaper articles have been removed (most all of the manuscript still legible). Written in three different hands.

Fort Sully was established by General Alfred Sully in the fall of 1863 at a site six miles below Fort Pierre in Dakota Territory to police Native American lands. In 1866 the War Department moved the post to a new site on the east bank of the Missouri, some thirty miles north, where it remained in existence for thirty-one years. The journal is a chronological register of accounts of trading post customers, listing name, amounts, services, and goods (e.g., cords of wood, sundries, wages to stage drivers, etc.). Names include officers, soldiers, civilians, commercial establishments, Wyoming Stage Company and other lines, a sprinkling of women’s names, and, perhaps most interesting, a goodly number of Native American names (Charging Hawk, Left-Handed Woman, Don’t-Act-the-Man, Porcupine Bear, Spotted Eagle, Bad Thunder, Pock Mark Squaw, etc.)
($400-600)


A VIRTUAL DOMESDAY BOOK OF DALLAS

66. [DALLAS, TEXAS]. Three original manuscript ledgers on the early legal history of Dallas and establishment and growth of the Methodist Episcopal Church: (1) Motion Docket [from May, 1849] to Nov[ember] Term 1858. Dallas, 1849-1858. Approximately 130 pp. Narrow folio, boards (broken). The motions are frequently signed and in the hands of the attorneys (see list below), and signed three times at rear by Nathaniel M. Burford. (2) Church Book for Dallas Circuit, East Texas Conference to Record the Members’ names every year any that die or move, make a note of the same, and keep a regular Record of all the members...Andrew Cumming. Dallas, 1850-1860. 62 pp. Folio, disbound. Rosters of members of the Dallas Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church, extracts from Isaac Webb’s journal from the 1840s, early Dallas church history, etc. (3) Untitled minutes and reports of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, containing records of the quarterly meetings of the Dallas City Mission of the Trinity Conference, Ervay Street Church, Floyd Street Church, etc. Dallas, 1873-1878. 63 pp. Small folio, original boards. Some pages loose and with marginal chipping and tears.

These original manuscripts constitute a virtual domesday book of early Dallas; they are perhaps the earliest substantial manuscript sources available on early legal and church activities in the newly established town of Dallas. The manuscripts represent a veritable “Who’s Who” of Dallas founding fathers. Documentation of Dallas at this period is almost impossible to find. The motion ledger, which commences only three years after the first court was established in Dallas, documents the activities of some of the first attorneys in Dallas. Recorded are brief notes on legal motions and their disposition. The roster of attorneys includes John C. McCoy, John J. Good, John H. Reagan, Edward Browder, John McClannahan Crockett, E. H. Tarrant, [John Neely?] Bryan & Marshall, Barton Warren Stone, Jr., and Nathaniel M. Burford (all of the attorneys are listed in the New Handbook). Burford has written an amusing poem on the pastedown revealing that the more things change, the more they stay the same:

L-a-w, law does like a blister draw.
If you’re fond of pure vexation
And long procrastination
You’re just in the situation
To enjoy a suit at Law.

The second ledger is valuable for its inclusion of extracts from the journal of Isaac Webb, “the first religious man that came to the [Peters] Colony,” including details of his 1842 overland journey from Missouri to Texas and establishment of Webb’s Chapel, the “first schoolhouse of the country” (1846). Also provided is an account of Webb’s brother-in-law, William M. Cochran, whom Webb persuaded to come to Texas. All of the members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the Dallas area from 1850 to 1860 are listed. The churches and classes, some of which were established in members’ homes, include: Dallas, Dallas Society, McKinny, Asbury Chapel, Liberty, Honey Creek, Cedar Spring, Webb’s Chapel, Cochran Chapel, Cotton Wood, Bethel Society, Spring Creek, Duck Creek, Myers, Kerby, Bellamy, Harding, etc. Members are designated by sex and race. The third ledger documents the growth of the Methodist Episcopal Church during the booming period of expansion in the 1870s, with the introduction of the railroad. There are many threads of history that should be researched in this group of manuscripts. (3 vols.)
($7,500-10,000)


67. DIMITT, Philip. Autograph letter, signed, to Thomas Powell in New Orleans. Dimitt’s Point, Port of Lavaca, June 15, 1837. 3 pp., 4to, plus integral address. Browned, a few small holes not affecting text.

A very rare autograph, with high words of praise for the fledgling Republic of Texas. Staunch Texan patriot Dimitt makes financial arrangements with his New Orleans banker Powell and states:

You can buy if you wish my Texian Lands, or not. The emigration is much to Texas. She must be one of the best countrys in the world, and there is many opportunitys of gitting choice Land and advantagious ports. I have no doubt this war is over.

Dimitt (ca. 1801-1841), pioneer Texas trader and merchant, was a major figure in the Texas Revolution. His many activities included seizing Goliad in 1835, participating in the siege of Bexar, penning the Goliad Declaration of Independence, designing two Texas Revolutionary flags, organizing volunteers at La Bahía in 1836, supplying Houston’s army at San Jacinto, etc., etc. Mexico issued a special warrant for his arrest on account of his role in the Texas Revolution, and in 1841 Mexican authorities succeeded in capturing the patriot. See New Handbook II, pp. 648-50, where his name is spelled Dimmitt.
($600-1,200)


68. DIONYSIUS AREOPAGITA. Theologia vivificans. Cibus solidus. Dionysii Coelestis hierarchia.... Paris: Henri Estienne, 1515. 224 leaves, illustrated title, text figures, tables, decorated initials. Folio, contemporary vellum. Binding worn and with a few short splits, some staining and occasional light foxing to text, a few small holes and wear (mainly confined to preliminary and terminal leaves—no losses), generally very good, with lengthy contemporary note in ink on front free endpaper.

A scarce imprint by Henri Estienne (d. 1520), who with his wife, Guyone Viart, created “the most important dynasty in the history of printing” (Blumenthal, The Art of the Printed Book, 1455-1955, p. 14). Dionysius was converted by St. Paul at Athens and is said to have been the first bishop of Athens. About 500 A.D. some writings were forged in his name; their authenticity was questioned almost from their first appearance. Nevertheless, his body of work was very influential in medieval Christianity, especially in the mystical traditions. They still remain normative for Eastern Orthodox spirituality. Commentators have included Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, and Bonaventura. The extensive commentaries in this edition are by Faber Stapulensis and Clichtoveus. BMC (French STC), p. 137.
($750-1,500)


1874 SAN DIEGO DIRECTORY WITH ALBUMEN PHOTOGRAPHS

69. [DIRECTORY: CALIFORNIA (SAN DIEGO)]. SAN DIEGO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE (compiler & publisher). Descriptive, Historical, Commercial, Agricultural, and Other Important Information Relative to the City of San Diego, California. Illustrated with 22 Photographic Views. Containing Also a Business Directory of the City. [San Diego]: Office of the “San Diego Daily Union,” 1874. [2, recto blank, verso albumen photograph mounted within printed border, printed caption below image] [1-2, title] [3-4, To the Chamber of Commerce, verso blank] [2, inserted Prefatory leaf] [5]-50 [51-52, Distances, verso blank] [53, blank] [54-64 (21 albumen photographs mounted within printed borders, printed captions below images)] [65-68 (printed borders)] pp. (printed caption to lower photo on p. [57] is a cancel). 8vo, original beige printed wrappers (ads on verso of upper wrap and recto and verso of lower wrap), sewn. Fragile wrappers very slightly worn, interior with a few traces of light foxing. Overall a very good, complete copy, the albumen photographs very fine. This unusual directory is not excruciatingly rare, but it is difficult to find in as good condition as the copy offered.

First edition. Cowan, p. 551. Graff 3664. Howes S67. Rocq 7826. Streeter Sale 2946: “The photographs, business directory, and advertisements...together with the text, make this an interesting pamphlet on the early days of San Diego. The text tells of the founding of the present city by A. E. Horton in 1867, and remarks: ‘Less than seven years ago the tract of land now occupied by about one thousand buildings and known as San Diego, was covered with a heavy growth of cactus and bushes, where thousands of hare and quail enjoyed almost perfect possession.’”

Quebedeaux 63: “First separate business directory of San Diego.... Important photographic source for the history and appearance of San Diego in the early 1870s. Very scarce. Early states and copies with illustrations in good condition much scarcer. As a promotional pamphlet, the publisher, no doubt, believed that true-to-life photographs would be more convincing than other kinds of book illustrations. Fessenden’s photograph of the Mission of San Diego is considered to be the first of that structure.... Considering the state of book production in San Diego at the time, this celebrated work was a major achievement, ranking as the first photographically illustrated book put together in Southern California.” Some of the same albumen photographs were used in Bosqui’s 1874 edition of Paloú’s Noticias de la Nueva California. See also: Gary F. Kurutz, “Descriptive, Historical, Commercial, Agricultural, and Other Important Information Relative to the City of San Diego...1874,” in California Printing, Part I, 1980, p. 25; “California Books Illustrated with Original Photographs,” in Biblio-Cal Notes (Summer/Fall 1974), pp. 10-11.
($2,500-3,500)


70. [DIRECTORY: CUBA, MEXICO & NEW YORK]. Nomenclator comercial, agricola, industrial, artes y oficios, y directorio general para 1884-1885 de la Isla de Cuba, México y principa comercio de Nueva York. Segunda serie [wrapper title].... Havana: Molinas y Juli, 1884. [2, upper wrapper] [18] [1]-158 [2, ad (samples of colored paint, a few absent)] 159-346, [1]-230 (ads, maps, and plans) [2, blank] [2] xx [2] [1]-96 [2, ad] 97-112 [2] 113-235 [1] [1]-158 (ads, maps, and plans) [1, map] [3, ads] [2] [1]-29 [1] [2, lower wrap] pp., 3 long folding plates (about 60 woodcut views of Cuba and Mexico and portrait of Hidalgo), numerous text-illustrations and maps. Royal 8vo, original stiff paper wrappers bound in later dark brown leather over yellow boards. Inconsequential soiling and shelf wear to binding, lower wrap and foldout plates archivally backed (a few minor losses at folds of plates), approximately one inch of text missing from first leaf of Mexico directory. Despite the minor flaws, overall an exceptional copy, particularly considering the heavy use and ephemeral nature of directories of this sort.

First edition. Not in Palau. Directories are one of the primary historical sources for the intense study of local, social, cultural, and economic history. This massive directory of Cuba, Mexico, and New York is filled with incredibly detailed documentation, including maps of each state and province in Cuba and Mexico, as well as maps of each major town and city. Hundreds of business establishments (interior and exterior) and their wares are illustrated. Tradesmen, companies, doctors, photographers, hotels, schools, post offices, and all manner of commercial, political, and public offices and persons are listed alphabetically with their addresses, and again under categories for the person’s or company’s particular enterprise. Also provided are short histories of each state or province, statistics; laws applicable to commerce; transportation fares, timetables, and routes; etc.
($500-750)


BRONZE BUST OF J. FRANK DOBIE

71. [DOBIE, J. FRANK]. EVETT, Philip John (sculptor). Life-size bronze bust of J. Frank Dobie. Cast at Roman Bronze Works, Inc., [New York City, 1962]. Incised at lower right: 55 Evett TEXAS. Height from bottom of base to top of head: 24 inches. Excellent condition.

One of only two castings (The University of Texas owns the other casting, which is on permanent exhibit). Artist Evett modeled this handsome bust from life in 1955, while Dobie was still in vigorous health and at the height of his literary powers. Dobie publicly stated that this bronze and Tom Lea’s portrait were his two favorite portraits of himself. The Evett bronze is the only bust depiction of Dobie (1888-1964), one the most honored literary figures representing Texas and the Southwest. He received both national and international acclaim, and was the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom four days before he died.
($10,000-20,000)


72. DOMENECH, E[mmanuel Henri Dieudonné]. Journal d'un missionaire au Texas et au Mexique. Paris: Librairie de Gaume Frères, 1857. xii, 478 [1, erratum] pp., engraved folding map of Texas, author’s route outlined in original color, portions of map with original pale pink wash (Carte du Texas pour les Missions et Voyages.... 17-5/8 x 14 inches). 8vo, contemporary navy blue calf over black and blue marbled boards, spine gilt. Two short tears to map. An exceptionally fine, fresh copy.

First edition (contains a 41-page appendix of letters from Odin and other missionaries in Texas which did not appear in the English translations or the second French edition). Graff 1119. Howes D408. Plains & Rockies IV:356n: "A genuine narrative...with a wealth of incident and personal detail." Rader 1175. Raines, pp. 69-70. Streit 2435. Palau 75066. Tate, Indians of Texas 2040. “[Domenech] may have been the first priest to be ordained in Texas.... The book describes the trials of early Catholic missionaries and is filled with vivid sketches of the Texas frontier and anecdotes about its people. He found Houston ‘infested with Methodists and ants’ and dismissed Austin, ‘the seat of the Texian legislature,’ as ‘a small dirty town’ with ‘only one wretched hotel.’ His colorfully detailed narrative of the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in Texas, amid the tensions of the boundary disputes with Mexico and the devastation of an epidemic of cholera, has no counterpart” (New Handbook II, p. 672). The map, which is based on De Cordova, designates West Texas as "Solitudes frequentées par les Apaches."
($450-650)


THE AUSTIN PIG WAR

73. DUBOIS DE SALIGNY, Jean Pierre Alphonse. Engraved bond completed in manuscript, signed by Charles DeMorse as Stock Commissioner, June 15, 1840; made out to and signed by A. de Saligny. Text commences: Republic of Texas, Certificate of Stock in the ten per cent consolidated fund. Be it known that there is due from the Republic of Texas to [A. de Saligny] One Hundred Dollars.... New Orleans: Endicott & Clark, [1840]. Vignette of building with waterwheel at center, allegorical female figure at left, five pointed star at bottom. All coupons present. Cross cancel. Fine, also signed by Comptroller James B. Shane.

Criswell 40E (II, p. 286). President Lamar hoped to relieve the Republic of Texas’ on-going financial woes by issuing these bonds to tide Texas over until its anticipated loan from France materialized. The present example is particularly interesting, having been issued to and signed by “Count” de Saligny, first French chargé d'affaires to the Republic of Texas and leading combatant in the seriocomic Pig War of Austin (New Handbook II, pp. 711-12; V, pp. 199-200). The Texans were highly amused by the Count’s running argument with Austin innkeeper Richard Bullock, whose pigs invaded not only the Count’s garden and barn, but even his private chambers, devouring his corn, his towels, and his papers. Appalled by the crude manners of the impertinent Texans and the barbaric lifestyle of the frontier capital, the French popinjay left Austin in a huff. The amusement of the Texans quickly evaporated after the Count delivered a blistering report on Texas to the French Minister of Finance (who just happened to be Saligny’s brother-in-law), which led to the French banking house reneging on its agreement to purchase Republic of Texas bonds. The other signer, DeMorse, has been called the “Father of Texas Journalism” (see lot 25 herein).
($150-300)


ALL TEN OF SIME’S FANTASTICAL PHOTOGRAVURES SIGNED

74. DUNSANY, Lord [Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron]. Lot of four books, including: Time and the Gods. London & New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1922. Ten photogravures of illustrations by S. H. Sime (all ten gravures signed by artist). Large 8vo, original vellum over orange cloth, gilt-lettered leather spine, t.e.g. Slight binding wear (at corners), otherwise fine, a desirable copy.

Limited edition (#215 of 250 copies, signed by author). Bleiler, Checklist of Science-Fiction & Supernatural Fiction, p. 66. A consummate marriage of text and illustration. Other titles in the lot are Tales of Wonder (London: Elkin, Mathews, 1916. 6 plates by Sime. Small 4to, original beige buckram over grey boards); Tales of War (Dublin & London, [1918]); The Charwoman’s Shadow (London & New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, [1926]). (4 vols.)
($450-550)


75. ELIOT, T. S. Animula. London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1929. 2 wood engravings (one colored) by Gertrude Hermes. 8vo, original yellow boards. Fragile boards smudged and slightly nicked at extremities, some wear to spine and top edges, very light pencil notes on two preliminary leaves, interior very fine.

Limited edition (#44 of 400 large paper copies, signed by author). Gallup A14b.
($200-400)


76. ELIOT, T. S. Ash-Wednesday. London: Faber & Faber Ltd., 1930. 12mo, original brown cloth. Book label of John Johnson on front pastedown, light pencil notations on two preliminary pages. Very good condition, but lacking d.j.

First trade edition. Connolly, The Modern Movement 65: “The poems...represent the first fruits of Eliot’s conversion (1927) after the despair of ‘The Hollow Men,’ and are among his most beautiful lyrics. ‘A thin firm minor music of ceremonious intricacy; a religious poem which contains no slovenly phrase, no borrowed zeal, no formulated piety’ (Kenner).” Gallup A15b.
($150-300)


77. ELIOT, T. S. Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats. London: Faber & Faber Limited, [1939]. 8vo, yellow pictorial cloth with red lettering and design. Some light stains to covers. D.j. lightly soiled and with minor wear. Very fine internally. A difficult book to find in collector’s condition.

First edition. Gallup A34a. "A minor masterpiece...a classic among books of poetry for children"—Oxford Companion to English Literature (p. 267). The whimsical pictorial designs on the cover and dust wrapper are by Eliot.
($200-400)

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