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Hamilton,

Early American Book Illustrators and Wood Engravers

, pp.

119

-

120

and

Groce & Wallace, p.

182

). Doepler’s grand print “illustrates the potency of Manifest

Destiny in the formation of a national identity for the United States. It depicts the

westward expansion of the U.S. from the East (background), across the Great Plains

(center ground), to the

fi

rst settlements hewn from the wooded slopes of the Rockies

(foreground). A group of Native Americans—depicted in a highly romanticized

manner, as be

fi

ts an image originally prepared by a German artist for a European

audience—witness the inexorable advancement of American civilization, even as

they are excluded from it. Carl Emil Doepler’s image reminds us that the identity

constructed for the United States in the nineteenth century by maps and atlases was

overwhelmingly one of a nation of Northern European–descended Protestant men”

(Edney,

Mapping the Republic: Con

fl

icting Concepts of the Territory and Character of

the U.S.A.,

1790

-

1900

).

(

$1

,

000

-

3

,

000

)

5

. [ATLAS]. RAND, McNALLY & CO.

New Indexed Atlas of the World Containing

Large Scale Maps of Every Country and Civil Division upon the Face of the Globe,

Together with Historical, Statistical and Descriptive Matter Relative to Each. Illustrated

by Numerous Colored Diagrams, Accompanied by a New and Original Compilation

Forming a Ready Reference Index, Which Presents as Its Special Feature the

Arrangement in Alphabetical Order of Nearly All Known Geographical Names....

Chicago,

1887

.

731

pp. (all but

3

plates and maps included in pagination),

97

cero-

graphed and lithographed maps, the majority in color, most double-page,

4

large and

folding (Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and Texas—the folding maps are cero-

graphed),

7

lithographed color plates (comparative architecture,

fl

ags, religious dis-

tribution, solar system, navy tonnage, military power, emigration statistics diagram),

numerous engraved text illustrations (mostly views, but some maps and plans).

Small, thick folio, original morocco-texture red sheep, lettered and decorated in gilt,

beveled edges, a.e.g. Binding rubbed and worn (especially lower cover), but much

better than usually found. A few minor repairs and splits to maps and U.S. map loose.

Generally, the interior and maps are

fi

ne.

The

fi

rst edition of this atlas listed by the Library of Congress is

1886

(Phillips,

Atlases

934

). Despite this being a world atlas, the majority of maps relate to the

United States and the Americas. The Texas map is of special interest. Martin &

Martin (plate

49

) illustrate and discuss a Rand, McNally & Co. map of Texas from the

same year, which is entitled

Rand, McNally & Co.’s New Enlarged Scale Railroad

County Map of Texas

. That map is almost identical to the present atlas map of

Texas—in layout, inclusion of county map at lower right, and size (the present atlas

map measures

64

.

8

x

73

.

8

cm;

25½

x

28¾

inches). However, the present atlas map of

Texas is untitled, whereas the map cited by Martin & Martin has a title as indicated

above. This shows how Rand, McNally recycled their maps to be used as needed in

specialized atlases or as separates.

Because of the great detail found on the maps (and in the text), the atlas is impor-

tant historically—and not only for transportation history. There are numerous other

inroads of research, such as the map of Wyoming, which locates ranches. Each detailed

map has light pastel color and identi

fi

cation of regions, sea routes, railroad lines, cities,

towns, counties, rivers, Native American reservations, etc. Despite the late date of this

atlas, it contains important transitional maps for some Western areas still developing at

that time, such as the Dakotas, Wyoming, and Indian Territory. The map for the latter

still shows the area divided into tribal allotments. Two years after this publication, that

map would change dramatically because of the six land rushes the U.S. government

authorized between

1889

and

1895

, in which Native Americans once again lost their

lands. The text accompanying the Indian Territory map discusses earlier attempted

incursions: “Attempts were made in

1880

by bands of whites to enter the Indian

Territory for the purpose of taking possession of the rich lands there, and a large force

of United States troops had to be called out to prevent the execution of these designs.”

What would become the mogul map

fi

rm of Rand, McNally & Co. was founded

as a modest print shop in Chicago in

1856

. The breakthrough for the

fi

rm was their

introduction of rapidly evolving printing methods, which made it possible for maps

to be printed quickly as changes in borders and transportation routes occurred. By

the time the present atlas appeared, the

fi

rm was a very serious map and atlas pub-

lisher with categorized atlases, an international market for productions such as this

one, and individually issued railroad and shipping guides in pocket map format.

Martin & Martin (p.

61

) comment on the Rand, McNally

fi

rm: “The era of railroad

transportation and western migration created a great demand for Rand, McNally’s

maps and guidebooks; these same forces, however, rendered the product virtually

obsolete overnight. The number of copies required also strained the limits of the tra-

ditional methods of producing such items. In short, there was a great demand for

large numbers of accurate, inexpensive, up-to-date maps and guidebooks. To

fi

ll this

demand it was necessary for Rand, McNally to adopt a new printing technology,

cerography or wax engraving, which produced a hard, durable plate that could be

used in the new steam-powered presses, but which could also be easily corrected and

amended. The adoption and perfection of the wax-engraving process as a production

technique had enormous in

fl

uence on the growth of Rand, McNally.” One interest-

ing aspect of the present atlas is its inclusion of several printing techniques, includ-

ing lithography, cerography, and engravings.

(

$750

-

1

,

500

)

6

. [ATLAS]. WILKINSON, Robert (publisher).

A General Atlas, Being a Collection of

Maps of the World and Quarters, the Principal Empires, and Kingdoms &c with Their

Several Provinces, & Other Subdivisions, Correctly Delineated.

London: Published Feb

y.

1

st

1800

. [

2

, engraved allegorical title of an angel and a lady surrounded by carto-

graphical motifs commemorating the achievements of Columbus, Raleigh, Drake,

and Cooke] [

2

, contents and publisher’s ad with imprint:

London: Printed for Robert

Wilkinson, No.

58

, Cornhill,

1807

] pp.,

48

copper-engraved maps with original outline

color and partial shading (

2

double-page maps at front).

4

to (

34

.

2

x

28

.

6

cm;

13½

x

11¼

inches), contemporary three-quarter sheep over boards covered with marbled

paper, black leather label. Spine worn, dry, and cracking, corners worn and bumped,

boards rubbed (with printed waste sheets below partially visible), hinges cracked

(but strong), engraved title and prelims foxed, a few maps soiled and foxed, most

maps

fi

ne except for foxing on blank versos, map of France carelessly mounted on a

stub resulting in marginal wear and chipping at left blank margin.