I. BROADSIDES

 

1. ¡¡Adios, adios!! El ultimo corrido de la despedida de Chonforo Vico. 1909?. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, pale green paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Chonforo Vico wearing a monocle, black suit, and bowler, carrying a cane. Unsigned. 5.3 x 3.3 cm. (2) Crowd of men with arms outstretched and waving farewell. Unsigned. 4.6 x 11.5 cm. Fine.

 

2. ¡Ah quechula eres pachita! Me dan ganbas de besarte no mas no quieras platitas...[No. 51]. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Man in patched clothing and squashed hat, one hand in pocket, other on heart, talking or singing to another man at a window. Unsigned. 13.0 x 7.2 cm. Fine.

 

3. El Ahualulco [No. 32]. 1919. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, hot pink paper. Zinc etching: Man with large mustache, sideburns, sombrero, serape, knife at belt, charro trousers, dog at right side. Signed in print: Angel. 7.4 x 4.9 cm. Slight wear to blank margins, generally fine. Same as next, but on different colored paper.

 

4. El Ahualulco [No. 32]. 1919. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, salmon paper. Zinc etching: Man with large mustache, sideburns, sombrero, serape, knife at belt, charro trousers, dog at right side. Signed in print: Angel. 7.4 x 4.9 cm. Fine. Same as preceding, but on different colored paper.

 

5. Alabanzas y tierno despedimento dedicado al esclarecido taumaturgo San Antonio de Padua...[No. 78]. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Saint Anthony of Padua with the Christ child flanked by candelabra with flowers. Unsigned. 9.4 x 6.2 cm. Fine.

 

 6. Alejandra letra arreglada al popular wals del mismo nombre [No. 15]. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Zinc etching: Attractive lady with long, curly hair stands with hands on hips, attired in shawl with fringed ends, polka-dot dress, and slippers. Unsigned. 16.0 x 6.0 cm. Fine. Contains two verses, Alejandra and Uruapam. Fine. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 37 (illustrating image as used in another work).

 

7. ¡Aparición de un espíritu! Una mujer se conserva intact despues de 30 años de muerta. Efectos de un juramento de amor. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: In a bedroom a ghostly female figure writing on a piece of paper appears to a frightened trio (two women and a man, the latter with hair on end). Unsigned. 10.1 x 14.0 cm. Very fine.

 

8. Aqui estan el huacal y la tarasca para aquellos que quieren ruido y frasca. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto, yellow paper. Type-metal vignettes: small images including man and woman, frog with banjo, rooster riding a cat, etc. Unsigned. Various dimensions, mostly small vignettes. Left margins stained and chipped.

 

9. La arranquera. ¡Esto si que es un grande apuro ya no se consigue un duro. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Meek woman in shawl and long skirt with dubious-looking man in top hat and city dress; in the background is a couch and a picture of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Unsigned (Amon Carter inventory attributes to Manuel Alfonso Manilla). 11.4 x 9.7 cm. Fine. Same image appears below under title Diálogo divertido.

 

10. Los autores del crímen de la Profesa en Veracruz con dirección á San Juán de Ulúa. Undated. Pictorial broadside with verse and prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Four men in prison dress in a small boat; two guards with guns on shore; San Juán de Ulúa and three boats in background. Unsigned (Attributed to Posada). 14.8 x 18.3 cm. Marginal chipping and one corner stained. Tyler 115.

 

11. Balazos en la calle de San Hipólito en un tren de las corridas de Atzcapotzalco.--Una señora asesinada.--Dos Gendarmes gravemente herridos.--Aprehensión del asesino por unvaliente y arrojado ciudadano [Gaceta Callejera No. 5]. August 1892. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Trolley numbered 81, platform with man in mustache and sombrero firing a pistol at a policeman with a nightstick in hand, another policeman behind; man, child, and dying woman on platform, three others rushing to the scene. Unsigned. 11.5 x 17.6 cm. Some chipping and short tears to blank margins. Berdecio & Appelbaum, p. xv (fig. H); see also fig. 84 & p. 149 (note 84): "The killer was Leopoldo Cárdenas, who followed his mistress Teodora Piedras onto a trolley and shot her. She was traveling with a young girl she called her sister.... The broadside shows the picture completed at left by the arrival of the two policemen, one of whom is being shot by Cárdenas [goes on to discuss later reworking of the plate]." See restrike below for a portion of the plate: "Llega la policia...."

 

12. La brava calavera del cinematografo. 1906. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, bright pink paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Calavera cat wearing small hat, vest, and spats, holding two skulls; bones and skulls litter the foreground; men and women in the background flee into the forest. Signed in print: Posada. 15.0 x 23.2 cm. (2) Tailpiece on verso illustrating a field of skulls and bones. Signed in print: Posada. 3.5 x 24.5 cm. The broadside is adorned with 18 type-metal engraved vignettes, mostly of skulls and calaveras. Fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 7: "Not in Illustrador. Called 'Calavera: El morrongo' in Monografía. Called 'Calavera del gato morrón' in Printmaker. The term gato morrongo was also applied to etcher's helpers."

 

13. Las bravisimas calaveras guatemaltecas de Mora y de Morales. 1907. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, lilac paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Two large calaveras representing Bernardo Mora and Florencio Morales, the assassins of the ex-President of Guatemala, wearing jackets, pants, and fedoras (one brandishing a knife, and the other a bone) run through a field of skulls as frightened citizens flee in the background. Signed in print: Posada. 15.6 X 27.2 cm. (2) Tailpiece on verso illustrating a field of skulls and bones. Signed in print: Posada. 3.5 x 24.5 cm. The broadside is adorned with 17 type-metal engraved vignettes of skulls and calaveras. Minor chipping at top blank margin, but generally very fine. Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries 280. Classic Posada iconography. The calavera on right with bone may also have been used in another broadside (in Amon Carter collection) entitled Calaveras de Guadillos [sic] de Silla Presidencial.

 

14. La Calavera de cupido. También cupido el travieso después de muerto es tronera, y llora de amor el hueso como todo calavera. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto, bright pink paper. 12 type-metal engravings: Various types of calaveras, including cleric, soldier, fine lady, dandy, campesino wearing sombrero and drinking, four couples, etc. Each engraving measures approximately 7.0 x 6.0 cm. Unsigned. Right margin chipped, slightly affecting printed border. Berdecio & Appelbaum 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 (four portraits and one couple). Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 54 (illustrating one of the couples).

 

15. MC123 Calavera de los patinadores. 1910. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto, yellow paper. Type-metal engraving: Three skeletons busily sweep the street; a fourth skeleton dressed in police gear watches and pats one of the workers on the back; at right a man in a small sombrero drinks from a gourd. Signed in print: Posada. 12.1 x 20.5 cm. Six small type-metal engravings (mostly calaveras) used as vignettes. Chipped on lower edge and at lower right corner (affecting only a small portion of line border). Berdecio & Appelbaum 32: "Criminals convicted of minor offenses were used as street cleaners: hence the police guard, and the variety of clothing the skeletons wear." Tyler 183: "The Mexican Herald reported that 719 peons had been permanently employed as street sweepers in Mexico City. To their number were also added an uncounted contingency from the Belén Prison, who were assigned to clean the worst streets. Work began around six in the morning and was expected to be finished by eight. The tools were twig brooms, escolas de vara, and metal scrapers. A second cleaning commenced at 2:30 P.M. during the siesta. Main thoroughfares received most frequent attention, back streets less. A U.S. firm tried to sell the city government mechanized street-cleaning vehicles, but the lack of sufficient water pressure in the city hydrants prevented their use, and the street sweepers were kept at their manual labor."

 

16. Calavera tapatia. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Large illustration of calaveras couple--man wearing sombrero, short tie and coat sitting at a table with jar lettered "Posole," knife, lime, playing cards, etc.; the man is drinking tequila and smoking a cigar; behind is a neatly coifed woman holding his shoulder. 22.6 x 14.0 cm. Unsigned (attributed to Manuel Manilla). Adorned with eleven type-metal vignettes, twenty smaller figures illustrating text. Very fine. Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries 275: "Tapatia is a slang word referring to people from Jalisco, the state known for the manufacture of tequila. The term also describes a 'tough guy' with his drink (tequila, of course), his cigars (the band says Tapatia), his brunette, and his knife. His attitude is 'Don't mess with me'; but, as the text elaborates, Death will catch him when he least expects it--bravado is no protection from Death. Manilla's illustrations aptly characterized the tapatia, and Vanegas Arroyo frequently reused the image. A later version of the Calavera tapatia broadsheet was printed without text--the well-worn image said it all." Tyler 234 (another use): "Posada's style, once he arrived in Mexico City, was greatly influenced by Vanegas Arroyo and Manuel Manilla, the artist who had been engraving popular prints for the unlettered peasants and poor city dwellers for years. Posada first copied Manilla's style, then, with his mastery of engraving and zinc etching, a highly unusual form of printing, he exceeded his teacher. The similarity between Posada's early Mexico City work and Manilla's has led many to credit Posada with virtually all the Vanegas Arroyo broadsides and to estimate that he did perhaps twenty thousand different prints during his lifetime. It is now clear that Posada's etchings and engravings probably numbered fewer than estimated and that many of the best known images are the works of Manilla and other artists. Perhaps the most well-known examples are La hambrienta calavera and Emiliano Zapata. Another good example is the Calavera tapatia."

 

17. Calaveras de Coyotes y Meseras. 1906. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, lilac paper. Zinc etching: Calavera cat wearing small hat, vest, and spats and holding two skulls. Bones and skulls litter the foreground. Men and women in the background flee into the forest. Signed in print: Posada. 15 x 23.2 cm. The broadside is adorned with four type-metal engraved skulls. Outer edge of blank margins slightly faded, otherwise fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 7: "Not in Illustrador. Called Calavera: El morrongo in Monografía. Called Calavera del gato morrón in Printmaker. The term gato morrongo was also applied to etcher's helpers."

 

18. Las calaveritas picosas. Undated. Pictorial verse, half sheet, printed on recto, purple paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Standing calaveras couple, the man in charro dress. Signed in print: JM (?). 7.7 x 6.3 cm. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 55 (as used in El gran panteón amoroso). (2) Standing calaveras couple, the man in peon dress, gesturing to the woman. Unsigned. 7.7 x 6.4 cm. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 50 (as used in La calavera cupido). A smaller skull with shoes appears on either side above imprint (see Tyler 186, for another use of this vignette). Very fine.

 

19. El cancionero popular. Hoja num. 3: Tiburcia o la estación de Morelos. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, maize paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Masthead with musical motifs. Unsigned. 8.0 x 16.0 cm. (2) Elegantly dressed gypsy lady in fringed shawl stands with hands on hips. Unsigned. 11.9 x 6.1 cm. Fine. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 37. This popular image was used in many publications.

 

20. El cancionero popular. Hoja num. 18: Cancion de pulquero (á) El banderillero. 1910. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, mauve paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Masthead with musical motifs. Unsigned. 8.0 x 16.0 cm. (2) Inebriated man at bar in a cantina wearing a sombrero and holding a mug in one hand and a liquor bottle with a funnel in the other. Signed in print: Posada. 13.2 x 6.5 cm. Browning and marginal chipped at right blank margin.

 

21. El cancionero popular. Num. 2. Jesus Negrete (A) El Tigre de Santa Julia. 1909. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, salmon paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Masthead with musical motifs. Unsigned. 8.0 x 16.0 cm. (2) Full-length portrait of Jesús Negrete, in sombrero and charro garb. Signed in print: Posada. 17.1 x 6.2 cm. Very fine. Tyler 16 & 17 (reproduces photograph that may have been the basis for this etching): "One of the most famous of the bandits that infested Mexico during the early twentieth century was Jesús Negrete, called 'the Tiger of Santa Julia.' He had a record of crimes that was virtually unending.... Negrete was finally arrested when a member of the reserves received a tip and was able to surprise him on a cochineal plantation in Puerto Pinto de Tacubaya. But the story did not end there. Negrete escaped from Belén with four other prisoners soon after he was jailed. Finally, in 1908 he was convicted and sentenced to die. His appeals were exhausted in 1910. Meanwhile, he had become a model prisoner, learning to read and write and make cabinets. The warden of Belén testified to his progress and Negrete apparently expected to receive a pardon from Díaz, but the execution order was carried out on December 21, 1910."

 

22. Cogida de Rodolfo Gaona en la Plaza de Toros de Puebla, el 13 de diciembre de 1908. Undated [1908]. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Large portrait of the bullfighter, with motifs of his profession surrounding. Signed in print: Posada. 12.5 x 19.0 cm. Fine, with another small vignette on verso (bullfighter being tossed in air). Tyler 85. "Gaona was one of Mexico's most popular matadors.... He became world renowned and fought in all the great bullrings" (Tyler 91).

 

23. La compana de la independencia.... Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, yellow paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Crowd scene before a building with shrine of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Signed in print: Posada. 9.0 x 14.0 cm. (2) Himno nacional mexicano. Bust portrait of Hidalgo. Unsigned. 2.9 x 2.5 cm. Minor marginal browning, else very fine.

 

24. El consejo de guerra del corneta Bruno Labastida cómplice del asesinato del teniente Calápiz. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Sentencing of Labastida, with judge on raised curtained podium; soldiers to left; notary to right. Unsigned. 8.7 x 10.2 cm. Light marginal wear and staining.

 

25. La continuacion, señores de los pronósticos va...[and] Tango del morrongo. [No. 10]. 1903. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 3 prints: (1) Type-metal engraving(?): Man making predictions to four women and a girl. Unsigned. 8.1 x 13.6 cm. (2) Zinc etching: Column of waving people seen from behind. Unsigned. 9.0 x 1.9 cm. (3) Zinc etching: Woman with fancy fringed shawl dancing with a large cat while five other women watch. Unsigned. 7.6 x 13.3 cm. Small chip to left blank margin.