26. Corrido de la vida de Santanón. 1911. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Column of mounted revolutionaries; trees at left; image within oval. Unsigned (Attributed to Posada). 8.4 x 13.6 cm. Minor chip at lower blank left corner. Tyler 5: "Santana Rodríguez (Santanón) was one of the well-known 'Robin Hoods' who captured the fancy of the Mexican people during the Díaz era. His territory was the state of Veracruz. The rurales pursued him there for years before they were finally able to locate him in October 1910. They found his camp, where Yaqui women were busily preparing a meal, and after searching about finally found the bandits themselves hidden in high grass. A fight ensued in which sixteen bandits were shot--eight killed and eight wounded. Santanón was among the dead." See Tyler (p. 126), for a detail of etching.

 

27. Corrido jarocho [No. 28]. 1918. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, grey paper. Type-metal engraving: Charro with large sombrero and lady in shawl and long, dark patterned dress toast one another with wine glasses. Unsigned. 6.0 x 4.4 cm. Plus another minor illustration. Fine.

 

28. Corrido jarocho [No. 28]. 1919. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, hot pink paper. Zinc etching: Lively dance scene with charros and senoritas in long dresses, hurdy-gurdy player at right. Signed in print: Posada. 8.0 x 12.3 cm. Very fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 226 (another issue).

 

29. Crimen nunca visto! Tomás Sánchez, barbero que está establecido en Saltillo...[No. 106]. Undated [1902 or after]. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Man wearing suit, cape, and hat is shocked to discover a young girl decapitated on a bed. Unsigned. 7.7 x 13.1 cm. Very fine. The man illustrated was Tomás Sanchez, and the girl was his 11-year old daughter. Text states the murderer was Juan Sosa.

 

30. La despedida del soldado [No. 22]. 1918. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, pink paper. Zinc etching: Revolutionary soldier with mustache wearing sombrero, bandolier, and high boots stands with foot on rock, hand on chin, rifle in hand. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 17.0 x 6.0 cm. Fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 133. Tyler 167: "Here Posada portrays a quiet moment in the life of a revolutionary soldier. The figure has been identified as Genovevo de la O, one of the many rural leaders who became significant Zapatistas."

 

31. Diálogo divertido entre mujer y marido. [1920?]. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Meek woman in shawl and long skirt with dubious-looking man in top hat and city dress; in the background is a couch and a picture of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Unsigned (Amon Carter inventory attributes to Manuel Alfonso Manilla). 11.3 x 9.6 cm. (2) Rough caricature of an elongated man in suit. Unsigned. 9.0 x 2.2 cm. Some marginal chipping (larger chip at lower margin affects part of border and imprint). Same image appears on Diálogo divertido above.

 

32. Don Pepito contempla a las presentes calaveras de amigos y parientes [No. 31]. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto, bright pink paper. Type-metal engraving: An odd looking bald man (called Don Pepito here, but elsewhere named Don Chepito) wearing a dark suit and glasses, hand in pants pocket, stands contemplating a skull in his hand; the ground around him is littered with skulls. Signed in print: Posada. 19.1 x 10.1 cm. Two small vignettes on either side with calaveras. Chipped at lower blank margin (affecting a bit of border ornament at left). LaFaye (p. 137 in Tyler): "Two aspects of Posada's work represent the culminating points of that art insofar as its invention. The first lies in his creation of the archetypal character 'Don Chepito'...Chepito is the popular diminutive for Joseph. Don, on the other hand, is a mark of respect accorded only to a gentleman of a certain rank in society. The juxtaposition of Don and Chepito is thus strikingly inappropriate, and if one adds the epithet which the artist applies to him--'marihuano'--one ends up with something like 'Sir Joey Potsmoker.' Posada has created here a real comic-strip hero, and all kinds of mishaps befall him. This character is a modern version of Lizardi's catrin: he represents the folly of a snob who needs an audience to admire him.... But the trait in Don Chepito's makeup that is new--and, at that date, specifically Mexican--is the habit of smoking marihuana, which explains the physical appearance of the personage. This particular attribute makes even more striking the print in which we see Don Chepito, wearing a starched collar and a bow tie, standing on a floor strewn with skulls. He has picked one up and is looking at it closely, a second Hamlet holding the skull of old Yorick. But what exactly is going through the head--a head as bald as the calavera he is examining--of this ridiculous rival of the Shakespearian hero? The question will remain unanswered. Unless, of course, the fantastic universe of Posada's calaveras is merely the artist's symbolic reply to the questions of a metaphysic which he did not know how to conceptualize."

 

33. Ejemplar y ciertisimo suceso en la republica mexicana. Las verdaderas causas de temblor del dia 2 de noviembre de 1894. Undated (1894 or after). Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 2 type-metal engravings: Calamitous earthquake scene with buildings collapsing, man flying through air; another man on his knees with hands stretched upward; another man crawling on hands and knees; other men and women trying to escape, one dead or unconscious man on ground, bolts of lightning in the sky. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 11.7 x 20.9 cm. Tyler 54: "Posada's turbulent composition captured the panic and dismay...so well that it was reused to depict several later quakes, for example, when New Granada suffered a similar disaster and on November 19, 1912, when Mexico City was again hit. Though the seismograph at Tacubaya registered tremors from the 1912 earthquake for almost half an hour, only one death and a few injuries were recorded on this occasion. Nevertheless, Posada's print remained pertinent." (2) Another earthquake scene with three figures on ground three hysterical women, four men pushing or holding up a wall, columned architecture on right background. Unsigned. 12.0 x 13.4 cm.

 

34. Espantoso crímen nunca visto! ¡¡Mujer peor que las fieras!! Una niña con la ropa cosida al cuerpo [No. 113]. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Child abuse: diabolical-looking crone with long, stringy hair holds a young girl [María Consuelo González] by the hair while wielding tongs with a hot coal in her face. Unsigned. 8.7 x 13.6 cm. Berdecio & Appelbaum 67 (another use).

 

35. ¡Extraño nunca visto acontecimiento! ¡Un cerdo con cara de hombre...[No. 6]. 1900. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Bizarre composite creature with single horn on head. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 15.3 x 9.3 cm. Berdecio & Appelbaum 35. Tyler 82 (another issue, with broken horn and different typesetting): "This is one of the many prints that Vanegas Arroyo published calling attention to freaks of nature that were from time to time rumored to exist. He claims to have had reliable information about this pig with the face of a man, the eyes of a fish, and a horn on his forehead. Posada has produced a print, apparently from that description. The grotesque image can easily keep company with another of Posada's all-time favorites, the woman who gave birth to three children and four alligators."

 

36. Florencio Reyes Morales y Bernardo Mora sentenciados en el primer Salón de Jurados del Palacio Penal, el seis de Junio de 1907, á sufrir la pena de muerte por el asesinato del General Manuel Lisandro Barillas, Ex-Presidente de Guatemala. 1907. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Court room with judge on curtained podium sentencing the two assassins, with onlookers. Unsigned. 8.7 x 15.0 cm. Fine.

 

37. La fuga de Jesús Bruno Martínez de Belen. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Man in sombrero escaping from prison on a road; another man at right of prison building with small switch house behind, railroad track in foreground. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 17.4 x 19.8 cm. Other than minor wear and staining to blank margins, very fine. Tyler 114.

 

38. Funebres recuerdos de Ponciano, el distinguido terero mexicano, ya murio Ponciano Diaz El Magnifico Torero.... Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Fine and large oval portrait of bullfighter Ponciano Diaz, within ornate border. Unsigned. 13.5 x 9.7 cm. Fine.

 

39. El fusilamiento de Dionisio Silverio en Metepec, el día 8 de Septiembre de 1903 [No. 37]. 1903. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Firing squad shooting Silverio. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 11.4 x 16.1 cm. Very fine. Tyler 129: "The execution of Dionisio Silverio was the culmination of a long and sordid story of savage crime. It began when Silverio asked a neighbor, Sidronio Alvarez, to lend him his team of oxen to work his fields. Silverio kept the oxen instead of returning them and sold them. When Alvarez came to get the money, Silverio lured him into his house by telling him that he had it in a trunk inside. Silverio then attacked Alvarez with a hatchet from behind. Silverio's wife and brother made no effort to save Alvarez, and they were imprisoned but later released. Silverio was executed in front of his house, at the site of the crime."

 

40. El Fusilamiento de Florencio Morales y Bernardo Mora. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Execution by firing squad of Morales and Mora, in three rows: soldiers shooting the two, other soldiers looking on, general on-lookers. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 8.3 x 14.1 cm. Very fine. Tyler 139 & note to 140: "The two Guatemalans Florencio Morales and Bernardo Mora were executed for the stabbing death of the exiled former president of their country, Gen. Manuel Lisandro Barillas, in Mexico City. The Mexicans felt that the murder of Barillas was part of a political struggle between Nicaraguan president José Santos Zelaya, a noisy proponent of Central American union, and his opponent, Guatemalan President Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Mora and Morales, probably hired assassins, were viewed as pawns in the struggle. Mexico, reluctant to get involved, tried to extradite the two, but Cabrera refused."

 

41. Fusilamiento del soldado del 2o. batallon regional Julio Garcia. 1907. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Sentencing of Garcia, with judge on raised curtained podium, soldiers to left, notary to right. Unsigned. 8.7 x 10.2 cm. Very fine.

 

42. Gran alarma escandalosa que se vio alla por Chihuahua...[No. 9]. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Adaptation of the Leda and the swan theme--in a park-like setting an elegantly attired lady is being "approached" by a swan with the head of man, architecture in background. Signed in print: Posada. 11.1 x 15.6 cm. Fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 259 (same image, but on a different broadside).

 

43. Gran calavera eléctrica que se le va a regalar calavera muy fachosa de pura electricidad. 1907. Pictorial broadside verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Large calavera at left addresses a smaller calavera sitting outside a walled yard littered with many skulls; in the background a trolley with calavera passengers goes toward a gate in the wall. Adorned with 11 type-metal vignettes, including calaveras with scythes, skull with scissors, skull with book, skull wearing billed cap, etc. Signed in print: Posada. 25.5 x 11.8 cm. Berdecio & Appelbaum 6. Tyler 147 (citing another use): "This dramatic Posada print was used to tell at least a couple of different stories. The most common and popular one was that of the figure of Death (the calavera) who came to the centennial celebrations in 1910 to claim his own. The poet goes through the list of those who will be joining the calavera.... All of these 'became skeletons in the Centennial Graveyard.' In another version of this broadside [present broadside], the text is more closely related to the deaths caused by electric trams, something discussed continually in the papers. Here Posada made the trip to the cemetery more convenient by having the tram bring the doomed passengers directly to their graves." Very fine.

 

44. El gran descarrilamiento del ferrocarril central en Zacatecas ¡Diez muertos y 75 heridos! [No. 53] 1904. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Injured passengers are carried away and tended at the site of a train wreck. Unsigned. 8.7 x 13.3 cm. Fine.

 

45. Guadalupe Bejarano en las bartolinas de Belén. Careo entre la mujer verdugo y su hijo. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto, green paper. Type-metal engraving: Black-clad woman with wild hair turning from a bound, tortured figure on the hearth of a brick stove; owl, skull, chain and bone at left. 14.1 x 19.6 cm. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). Margins slightly faded, else fine. Tyler 128: "One of the more sensational crimes illustrated by Posada is the murder of a young girl, Crecencia Peneda, by the mujer verdugo, Guadalupe Martínez de Bejarano. The woman had a rather bad reputation, for she had been convicted in 1879 of killing a previously adopted girl, Casimira Juárez. She was released from prison and adopted Crecencia, whom she tortured to death. According to the text of the print, the woman charged her son, Aurelio, with the torture, but he refused to speak, either to defend himself or to admit guilt. She was finally convicted in 1892 and sent to prison again, where none of the other prisoners would associate with her."

 

46. ¡Horrible y espantosa crimen! Perpetrado a mediados del mes de Agosto de 1900.--Una mujer matada a bastonazos dentro de una cueva en la Villa de Guadalupe.--Una niña abandanada.... Undated [1900 or after]. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Three laborers discovering a dying woman with her baby in a cave. Signed in print: Posada. 8.8 x 13.2 cm. Fine. Tyler 137: "In mid-August 1900 some quarrymen on their way to work heard an infant crying from a cave. They entered to find the mother, dying, with the starving infant at her breast. They notified the police, who took the gravely injured woman to the police station and learned that her name was Camila Cervantes. She also murmured something about her husband and her brother-in-law, but the police failed to understand it. The police in Guadalupe, where the woman was found, contacted the Mexico City police who, using 'that sagacity which characterizes the Mexican police in dealing with the lower classes,' recalled that one Librado Martínez had reported his wife missing. They arrested Martínez and his brother, Germán, and turned the case over to the Guadalupe police, who seemed confident that they had their man." Berdecio & Appelbaum 253.

 

47. Imagen del milagroso San Antonio de Padua. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Two type-metal engravings: (1) Large image of St. Anthony of Padua with Christ Child on left arm, palm branch in right hand, ex votos pinned to his robe, flanked by vases of flowers and candles. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 30.5 x 21.0 cm. Tyler 42 (showing another issue of this portrait): "St. Anthony was a disciple of St. Francis and lived much of his life in Padua, Italy, dying there in 1231. He was a dynamic orator and was known as the 'Hammer of the Heretic' for his aggressive attacks upon heresies. In his teachings he stressed the Franciscan ideal of poverty and was a vigorous opponent of princely tyranny, often taking the part of the oppressed. In the Renaissance period a sentimental devotion to St. Anthony developed in spite of his aggressive nature. He is depicted in Christian art as a mild young man holding the Christ Child, referring to a vision he had in which the Holy Child miraculously appeared to him. Many miracles were attributed to Anthony during his lifetime, and he is still appealed to by the faithful for solution of worldly problems. This engraving portrays a statue of St. Anthony enshrined in the early seventeenth-century church of Calpulalpán, Tlaxcala, one of the great monastery churches established by the Franciscan order. Posada's portrayal is conventional, but he adds an element of immediacy by depicting the tiny silver ex votos on St. Anthony's robe. These are devotional offerings which pious pilgrims have appended to the robe of their favorite saint." (2) Calamitous earthquake scene with buildings collapsing, man flying through air, man on his knees with hands stretched upward, another man crawling on hands and knees, other mean and women trying to escape, one dead or unconscious man on ground, bolts of lightning in the sky. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 11.7 x 20.9 cm. Tyler 54: "Posada's turbulent composition captured the panic and dismay...so well that it was reused to depict several later quakes, for example, when New Granada suffered a similar disaster and on November 19, 1912, when Mexico City was again hit. Though the seismograph at Tacubaya registered tremors from the 1912 earthquake for almost half an hour, only one death and a few injuries were recorded on this occasion. Nevertheless, Posada's print remained pertinent." Two small wormholes at lower blank margin.

 

48. Interesante noticia! Castigo del Cielo para los que ofenden la dignidad de los ministros de dios [No. 20]. 1903. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Coach with cleric passenger, horse rearing, rocks being thrown, laborers run along beside coach. Unsigned. 7.7 x 12.9 cm. (2) Apparition of an angel from clouds, four on-lookers. Unsigned. 7.8 x 13.1 cm. Very fine. Text indicates that God's judgment is reigning down on freethinkers, Lutherans, Calvinists, and the followers of Voltaire and Rousseau.

 

49. Jesús Bruno Martinez en las bartolinas de Belen. Ultimas noticias de S. Juan de Ulua, las alhajas de Treffiel. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Man wearing small sombrero, suit with short coat, and tie, sitting at table with candle and two sheets of paper; he leans his head on his hand; below the table is a jug. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 12.8 x 17.7 cm. Upper left corner torn away with loss of first letter. Berdecio & Appelbaum 95. Tyler 116.

 

50. Juego de loteria. Undated. Pictorial game, full sheet, printed on recto, salmon paper. Zinc etching: 38 illustrations (star, bird, coyote, calavera, devil, sun, eye, moon, hat, scorpion, skull and cross bones, scissors, rose, etc.), with printed words in Spanish or Náhuatl, within double-line borders. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). Each box: approximately 3.3 x 3.5 cm., total image with imprint: 22.4 x 36.1 cm. Very fine. Tyler 74: "Although the rules are not given, this game appears to be a type of draw game similar to the French 'jeu de loterie.' Here a sheet containing a number of small images is cut into individual squares, which are then drawn from a hat by players and matched up with corresponding numbered pieces. the 'juego de lotería' has, like its French counterpart, a pedagogical value in that it associates the names and pictures of familiar symbols, animals, and persons. Images from Mexico folklore, like the calavera, diablo, and coyote, are notable inclusions."