51. El jurado de la Bejarano. El crimen de la Calle de los Vizcainas. El martirio de la Niña Crescencia Pineda. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Bust portrait of Guadalupe Martínez de Bejarano. Unsigned. 13.3 x 11.4 cm. Marginal staining and chipping, image and text fine. Tyler (citing another image but discussing the subject of the print): "One of the more sensational crimes illustrated by Posada is the murder of a young girl, Crecencia Peneda, by the mujer verdugo, Guadalupe Martínez de Bejarano. The woman had a rather bad reputation, for she had been convicted in 1879 of killing a previously adopted girl, Casimira Juárez. She was released from prison and adopted Crecencia, whom she tortured to death. According to the text of the print, the woman charged her son, Aurelio, with the torture, but he refused to speak, either to defend himself or to admit guilt. She was finally convicted in 1892 and sent to prison again, where none of the other prisoners would associate with her."

 

52. Lamentable y espantoso ejemplo ocurrido en el pueblo de la barca, estado de Jalisco el día 4 de Diciembre del año próximo pasado. Juan Ortiz asesino de su mujer y de su angiano padre. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Ortiz in white peon clothing and pointed beard wields a dagger at his ancient father in hat, white peon clothing, and serape; at right his dead mother lies on the floor. Unsigned. 8.0 x 13.3 cm. Fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 79.

 

53. Lamentos de un casado que ya se da a los infiernos.... Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, blue paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Disconsolate man with hand on head, seated at a table with pen and inkstand. Unsigned. 7.0 x 8.3 cm. (2) Standing man with pointed beard wearing bowler hat and suit and vest. Unsigned. 10.6 x 3.4 cm. The two separate etchings form one image.

 

54. Lamentos muy lastimeros que exhalan en hondos gritos los señores cantineros y los pobres borrachitos [No. 27]. 1803 (i.e., 1903). Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Middle-class men in suits leaving a railway station from the front; peons leaving from the back; one man rushing to catch the train. Signed in print: Posada. 9.4 x 12.3 cm. Minor chip at each upper blank corner.

 

55. Legitimos versos de Lino Zamora traidos del Real de Zacatecas. 1903. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, green paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Matador Lino Zamora and bull. Unsigned. 11.3 x 16.2 cm. (2) Mourners at a cemetery. Unsigned. 7.6 x 12.8 cm. Fine.

 

56. Martirio de una niña. [Gaceta Callejera...No. 13]. October 3, 1893. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Young girl bound to a cross with rope is being borne aloft by a policeman. A group of gesticulating people and two other policemen surround her. Unsigned. 16.7 x 14.3 cm. Upper blank margin chipped. Berdecio & Appelbaum: Entire broadside reproduced in Ilustrador. This girl, about 6, was constantly made miserable by her godmother, who was taking care of her during her mother's illness; finally the cruel woman, compared in the broadside to Bejarano, tied the girl to a cross because she had forgotten to cross herself."

 

57. Mi grandota, nuevas y divertidas decimas para reír y pasar el rato. 1911. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, pink paper. 2 prints: (1) Zinc etching: Overweight homely woman in skimpy dress and high heels at left. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 9.9 x 4.4 cm. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago, Exhibit, p. 37. (2) Type-metal engraving: Reeling, drunk man in serape, sombrero, and sandals. Unsigned. 8.5 x 5.1 cm. The second image is a cut-down version of Tyler 72.

 

58. La milagrosa imagen del Señor del Rescate [No. 63]. 1903. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Handsome full-page illustration of robed figure of Christ the Redeemer standing, head bowed as two angels worship at his feet, heads of four more angels in surrounding clouds. Signed in print: Posada. 29.2 x 20.2 cm. Lightly frayed at edges, else very fine. Tyler 36: "Images depicting Our Lord during his Passion are second only to those of Christ crucified in Mexican Catholicism. These devotional images became popular in the late Middle Ages when emphasis in Christian worship began to focus upon Christ's human suffering. Here we see the figure of Christ abstracted from any particular event in the narrative of the Passion, Christ is depicted in a timeless frame, in Heaven, surrounded by worshiping angels and billowing clouds. The image depicts the archetype of human suffering: the suffering of Christ is not a momentary occurrence but rather the exemplar of a lifelong fact of human existence, Christ's humble acceptance of suffering, expressed in this image, is a model for man to follow, for it is a means to transcend worldly problems through identification with Christ's divinity. Posada's engraving respectfully conveys the essence of Christ in his suffering. The pious devotional image, normally found as a folk painting (retablo), is here successfully transferred by Posada to the medium of print. This mass produced hoja religiosa comes close to matching the original painting in its effect."

 

59. Misteriosos fantasmas en las bovedas de Loreto. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, yellow paper. 3 type-metal engravings: (1) Man in black top hat and long black cloak exiting a window. Unsigned. 6.7 x 7.5 cm. (2) Overweight priest pointing at preceding image of man. Unsigned. 7.7 x 4.5 cm. (3) Don Chepito wearing glasses and umbrella stands with a young woman in shawl and a young boy in peon dress. Unsigned. 8.9 x 8.1 cm. Berdecio & Appelbaum 163 (noting that the boy may have stolen Don Chepito's watch). Very fine.

 

60. El mosquito americano.... Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, bright orange paper. Zinc etching: Large mosquitoes attack five fleeing persons. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 7.9 x 12.7 cm. Fine. Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries 278: "El mosquito americano is one of the outstanding political broadsheets published by Vanegas Arroyo. The import of Posada's dramatic illustration of mosquitoes attacking Mexicans of every social strata is clarified in the printed text. Even the type-metal border has mosquitolike elements. These are not ordinary insects but other insectlike pests-the tourists streaming into Mexico through Laredo, Texas, and the many industrial and technical "advisers" imported by Porfirio Díaz, who brought dollar-corruption with them. Vanegas Arroyo continued to republish this broadsheet during the waning years of the increasingly corrupt Porfirio." Tyler 103: "The American mosquito--that is, the mosquito of the New World--was much in the news at the turn of the century. The object of a great battle by the U.S. Medical Corps in Cuba, the mosquito was under attack again in Panama as the Americans were building the Panama Canal. But the mosquito the poet writes of here is the 'Yankee' mosquito, which entered Mexico through Laredo, Texas, and spread throughout the country, attacking all classes of society. There are several possibilities for interpretation of the term Yankee mosquito. Perhaps the tourists who were just beginning to be a common sight throughout the republic were the dreaded mosquito.... Another possibility is that mosquito referred to the many Americans President Díaz was bringing in to handle the railroads, the mines, and other technical aspects of Mexico's development. A third possibility is that the term referred to the already ubiquitous American dollar." Spirited and interesting image.

 

61. El Motín de los estudiantes...[Gaceta Callejera No. 1]. May, 1892. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Busy crowd scene with well-dressed man holding top hat, haranguing from a carriage, animated crowd, flags being waved. Signed in print: Posada. 10.5 x 25.2 cm. Small marginal tears to blank margin, generally fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 121. Tyler 19: "By 1892, an election year, it was clear that Porfirio Díaz, who had abolished the anti-reelection laws in 1888, intended to remain as president of Mexico. The students were divided into two groups: the liberals, who wanted Díaz to step down, and the conservatives, who would go along with him. The riot depicted in this Posada print began on May 13, when the students demonstrated in honor of Padre Hidalgo.... The demonstration continued on Sunday, May 15, when students, waving their anti-reelection banners entered the cathedral to ring the bells--frightening people who had come to worship. By then the crowd had swelled to over 14,000. The police forced the students back to the Plaza San Fernando, arresting many."

 

62. Muerte de Aurelio Caballero por el vómito, en Veracruz. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto, green paper. Type-metal engraving: Man in bed vomiting into chamberpot. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 12.8 x 18 cm. Margins light, else fine. Tyler 118. Aurelio Caballero was one of the persons convicted in the La Profesa theft in February of 1891. He died in prison at San Juán de Ulúa of yellow fever.

 

63. La muerte de su santidad León XIII y detalles de su penosa enfermedad [No. 33]. 1903. Pictorial broadside with verse and prose, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 3 type-metal engravings: (1) Putti with banner and bouquet. Unsigned. 6.5 x 3.3 cm. (2) Seated portrait of Pope Leo XIII. Unsigned. 7.4 x 6.0 cm. (3) Putti with banner and bouquet. Unsigned. 6.5 x 3.3 cm. Fine. Death and final days of the Pope.

 

64. Muerte del General Manuel González, en la Hacienda de Chapingo el dia 8 de Mayo de 1893, á las 12 v 38 minutos del día. [Gaceta Callejera No. 7]. May 8, 1893. Pictorial broadside with prose, full sheet, printed on recto, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Deceased General González in military uniform lying in state on bed, head on pillow, curtain above; at left, Mexican eagle with serpent, sword, flag, plumed hat, etc. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 11.2 x 19.6 cm. Tyler, pp. 39-40 (designating as first state): "An important Posada cut. The general lies for public viewing...the curtains of the deathbed open onto a black void suggestive of the nether regions. What followed proved well worth an extra of the Gazette. On May 11, brought from the hacienda to the capital, the corpse was to receive a most public and pompous burial. For the publisher May 10 became the deadline. Time was too short for Posada to compose and cut another plate of similar importance.... The second state of the plate first published May 8 displays--issuing out of the folds of the right curtain--a Lilliputian funerary cortege, its hearse dragged by plumed horses followed by well-fed mourners. The vision crosses the width of the image and fades out into the folds of the left curtain. Thus, spurred by the profit motive of his employer, Posada did his best, his admirable best, transforming a routine report into an ectoplasmic dream."

 

65. La muerte del sedicioso e infiel Jesus M. Guajardo. Undated. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, grey paper. Zinc etching: Voluptuous lady with long, curly tresses seductively attired in skimpy circus costume. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 12.3 x 4.4 cm. Very fine. Revolutionary content.

 

66. ¡¡Las mujeres martirizadas!! Crímenes nunca vistos en ciudad de Mexico, por Ramón Palma. Undated. Pictorial broadside with prose, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Type-metal engraving: Distressed lady in Victorian attire and Gibson-girl bun hairstyle kneels with hands on head. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 11.5 x 10.8 cm. Very fine. Berdecio & Appelbaum 99 (another use). Tyler 127 (another use).

 

67. Las 97 mujeres envenenadas en la carcel de Belén de México. 1907. Pictorial broadside with verse and prose, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Bust portraits 35 women criminals incarcerated in Belén prison. Signed in print: Posada. 11.0 x 11.2 cm. Fine.

 

68. Nuestra Señora de la soledad de Santa Cruz que se venera en Mexico. 1903. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. 2 type-metal engravings: (1) Large, beautiful full-page illustration of Our Lady of Solitude in elaborately decorated robe and white lace shawl, large candelabra on either side, floral border. Signed in print: Posada. 30.5 x 25.2 cm. (2) Another smaller engraving of Our Lady of Solitude surrounded by symbols of the Passion and Crucifixion. Unsigned. 14 x 9.4 cm. Fine. Tyler 40: "Among the advocations of the Blessed Virgin most revered in Mexico is Our Lady of Solitude. There are churches dedicated to her all over the country, one of the most important being in Mexico City. Our Lady of Solitude represents the Blessed Virgin after the crucifixion of Christ. In her later years Mary withdrew from society and led the contemplative life; hence she is depicted in the black garb of a nun, which also symbolizes her perpetual state of mourning. This image of Mary is an ancient one in Christian art, deriving from early scenes of the crucifixion in which she is depicted in mourning at the foot of the cross. In the 1500s a specific devotion to this aspect of Mary developed in Spain, and a mass for Our Lady of Solitude was celebrated every Holy Saturday, after the crucifixion ceremonies on Good Friday. The cult of Our Lady of Solitude is part of the widespread devotion to the Passion of Christ that became so important in the late Middle Ages. This devotion was transmitted in the 1500s from Spain to the New World where it became an integral aspect of Christian worship."

 

69. Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos [No. 11]. 1902. Pictorial broadside with prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, on buff paper. Two type-metal engravings: (1) Full-page image--within an ornate, elegant border, a large and fine rendering of a richly attired Our Lady of Saint John of the Lake with angels at her crowned and haloed head. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 29.5 x 20.5 cm. Tyler 37 (illustrating a slightly reworked version): "One of the most popular pilgrimage sites in Mexico is the small city of San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco, where in the sanctuary of the cathedral is enshrined a small statue of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. According to one traditional account of its origin, this image was brought to San Juan de los Lagos in the sixteenth century by the early Franciscan missionary, Fray Miguel de Bolonia, and enshrined there in a small chapel. Later, because of its deteriorated condition, it was relegated to a small altar in a corner of this chapel. In 1623 while a family of acrobats was performing in the area, their young daughter fell upon a dagger and was apparently fatally injured. Her lifeless body was taken to the chapel, which was located next to the hospital, and there an elderly Indian woman suggested to the grief-stricken parents that they pray before this rather unimposing little statue of Our Lady and that they pass the statue over the body of their child. This they did in faith, and their prayers were answered, for the child soon returned to life and full health. Following this event the image was miraculously restored to its original condition through the efforts of the grateful parents, and it soon became the focus of a nationwide devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary." (2) Cathedral of San Juan de los Lagos and the town square. Unsigned. 14.0 x 25.1 cm. Fine.

 

70. Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos [No. 8]. 1903. Pictorial broadside prose and verse, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Two illustrations: (1) Type-metal engraving: Full-page image--within an ornate, elegant border, a large and fine rendering of a richly attired Our Lady of Saint John of the Lake with angels at her crowned and haloed head. Unsigned (attributed to Posada). 29.5 x 20.5 cm. (2) Zinc etching: Cathedral of San Juan de los Lagos. Unsigned. 16.9 x 12.7 cm. Other than light marginal wear and darkening, very fine. Tyler 37 (illustrating a slightly reworked version). The text of this broadside differs from that of the preceding, and the illustration of the cathedral is different.

 

71. Nueva y segunda parte de los versos de echar pulgas a otra parte. 1911. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Zinc etching: Street scene with man in dark suit gesturing toward a well-dressed lady in full-length high-necked dress and dark shawl. Unsigned. 9.0 x 13.9 cm. Light uniform browning, minor chipping to top blank margin.

 

72. Las nuevas calaveritas de amor. 1912. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto, orange paper. 3 type-metal engravings forming one image: (1) Standing calavera with scythe. Unsigned. 6.2 x 2.9 cm. (2) Man wearing dark suit and striped trousers in a cemetery with outstretched arms and one foot in a grave with lettering "R.I.P."; calaveras are emerging from the grave and trying to pull him down. Unsigned. 6.1 x 7.4 cm. (3) Standing calavera with scythe. Unsigned. 6.2 x 2.9 cm. Very fine.

 

 73. El Nuevo Coyote. Undated. Pictorial game, full sheet, printed on recto, maize paper. Zinc etching: Pictorial vignettes surround six squares intersected by diagonal lines, diamond at center with coyote eating a lamb, twelve circles below with chickens, elaborate border with wells, cactus, etc. Signed in print: Posada. 34.0 x 25.2 cm. Very fine and unusual.

 

74. Nuevo oraculo del siglo XX [No. 58]. 1902. Pictorial prognosticator, full sheet, printed on recto and verso, buff paper. Three illustrations: (1) Type-metal engraving: 99 numbered quarter-size circles with italic text, square at middle with 9 dime-size numbered circles intersected with diagonals forming diamonds and triangles that are numbered, all on a background with myriad small illustrations (scorpion, hats, butterflies, dice, sacred heart, guitarist, watches, sun, moon, hourglass, cactus, owl, devil, lizard, etc.). Unsigned. 33.6 x 25.3 cm. (2) Zinc etching of calaveras (including a photographer), playing cards, dice. Unsigned. 13.0 x 3.2 cm. (3) Zinc etching. Calaveras (including barkeeper and artist), watch, playing cards. Unsigned. 13.0 x 3.2 cm. Split at folds where formerly folded (a few minor losses), lightly stained, marginal chipping.

 

75. Nuevos versos de Elvira de la Horma de su Zapato [No. 80]. 1903. Pictorial broadside verse, half sheet, printed on recto and verso, maize paper. 2 zinc etchings: (1) Lively dance scene, the central figure of which is a charrita slightly lifting her skirts and pointing her dainty shoes, while men with sombreros look on and one points. Two men are fighting at right. Unsigned. 7.8 x 12.8 cm. (2) Couple dancing and man playing harp in background. Unsigned. 5.6 x 4.7 cm. Hole and stain at top left (hole in blank margin, and stain only affecting a bit of border).