Early Maps of Australia & Georgia
67. HARRIS, John. Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca. Or, a Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels. Consisting of above Six Hundred of the Most Authentic Writers, beginning with Hackluit, Purchass, &c. in English...Together with such Other Histories, Voyages, Travels, or Discoveries, as Are in General Esteem; Whether Published in English, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, High and Low Dutch, or in any Other European Language. Containing Whatever Has Been Observed Worthy of Notice in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America; in Respect to the Extent and Situation of Empires, Kingdoms, Provinces, &c. The Climate, Soil, and Produce, Whether Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral, of Each Country: Likewise the Religion, Manners, and Customs of the Several Inhabitants, Their Government, Arts and Sciences, Publick Buildings, Mountains, Rivers, Harbours, &c. Illustrated.... Now Carefully Revised, with Large Additions, and Continued down to the Present Time.... London: Printed for T. Woodward, A. Ward, S. Birt, D. Browne, et al., 1744-1748. , xvi, 984 pp., titles printed in red and black, text in double column, 17 plates, 10 maps (5 of which are folding) + , 924, 927-1056,  pp. (complete), 21 plates, 13 maps (11 of which are folding). Total: 61 copper-engraved leaves of plates (38 plates of natural history, scenes, and views + 23 maps). 2 vols., folio, contemporary calf boards, expertly rebacked in matching calf, spine extra-gilt and with raised bands, gilt-lettered red and green morocco labels, boards and turn-ins newly tooled in blind and gilt, new marbled endpapers, fresh flyleaves. Light shelf wear (especially at corners, with a bit of board exposed). Interior with slight uniform browning, scattered mild foxing, occasional minor offsetting from plates and maps, and mild waterstaining to the blank outer margins of about last 150 pages of Vol. II. Overall this is a fine copy, complete with the Georgia and Australia maps in superb impressions, the two of which when sold separately often rival the commercial value of the entire work, but here offered as they originally appeared with their supporting explanations and with the context provided by entire work.
Second and best edition, considerably expanded from the first edition of 1705 to include the first appearance of two important maps, one of Australia, and the other of Georgia and the southeast United States (see map list below). Clancy, The Mapping of Terra Australis 6.25. Cox I, p. 10n. Davidson, pp. 37-38. European Americana 744/116. Davidson, pp. 37-38: “This revised edition is the one collectors should seek. It is so expanded compared with the first edition that it is almost a new work.” Hill II:775. Lada-Mocarski 3 (not noting pagination error). Landwehr 261. National Maritime Museum: Voyages 34n. Cf. Palau 112346 (citing the 1705 edition, attributing authorship to John Harrison). Perry, The Discovery of Australia: The Charts and Maps of the Navigators and Explorers, p. 60 & Plate 29. Sabin 30483 (quoting Dibdin): “`As to Harris’s Collection, let any one inspect the curious contents only of the first volume as exhibited by Mr. Harris, in his valuable Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Institution, p. 260, and he will not hesitate a moment respecting the importance of this work’—Dibdin’s Library Companion.” Steele, English Interpreters of the Iberian New World from Purchas to Stevens, pp. 117-118, 178 (commenting on the 1744-1748 edition): “Rearranged to reflect the new English interest in the Pacific. The Pacific was no longer regarded as a Spanish lake.” Taylor, p. 9 (“fairly reliable”). Tooley, The Mapping of Australia 241. Wickersham 6679. Wilgus, The Historiography of Latin Americana, pp. 222-223: “Dealing with all parts of the world, but especially America [with] many accounts omitted from other collections... Bancroft said that there were one-third more accounts than in Purchas’ collection.”
Minister and author John Harris (1666?-1719), despite a long and fairly successful career in the church and in the public eye, died a pauper. The writer John Campbell (1708-1775), on the other hand, was far more successful at his career, and his continuation of Harris is just one of his many literary and historical achievements.
This edition is valued for the many additions made to its original. Although the first edition is sometimes posited as a rival to the Churchill’s compilation, such a comparison is somewhat disingenuous because the two works had different purposes and relied on different sources; they are, therefore, more complementary than anything. Harris, and Campbell after him, together present a history of all known voyages and travels anywhere in the world from Columbus down to Anson (1740-1744). Included here for the first time in this work, at least, are those of Christopher Middleton, Woodes Rogers (including the rescue of Selkirk), Jacob Roggeveen, and George Shelvocke. Lada-Mocarski states that this edition also contains what is probably the first printed account of Bering’s second expedition. All these are interpolated into their proper places in the text.
This edition is also significant for its cartographic content and its representations of the known world right at the time when vigorous explorations would begin to unlock many geographical mysteries. The world maps in Vol. I, one drawn by Emmanuel Bowen and engraved by Thomas Kitchen, show all of northwest North America and the entire area below the Antarctic Circle as “Parts Undiscovered.” New Zealand, though named, is merely a sliver of coast line. The Pacific is basically an empty body of water devoid of land. In Vol. II, one entire section is devoted to attempts to find the Northwest Passage, an idea very much alive at the time but which would be laid to rest within the century as the “Parts Undiscovered” were filled in.
Some of the cartographic material caters to British ambitions and pride. The handsome map of New Holland (Vol. I, between pp. 324-325) is a tour de force and a triumph for Campbell. Based on an unspecified map in Amsterdam, it is the first depiction of Australia in English and obviously promotes English pretensions to it, including references to potential gold mines, of which the English colonies had proven distinctly deficient. In a curious footnote on either Campbell’s reading or personal acquaintances—perhaps both—a notation on the New Holland map states: “This is the country seated according to Coll: Purrey in the best Climate in the World.” That is a reference to Jean-Pierre Purry, famous Swiss projector of colonies in the temperate zone, who flogged his theories in England and is now best remembered in American history for his Huguenot colony at Purrysburgh, South Carolina (shown on the map of Georgia and the Carolinas in Vol. II, p. 322), on the Savannah River near present-day Hardeeville.
The map is assuredly the best combination of geographical and colonization interests in the entire work. Its interests and views consort well with those announced on the world map in Vol. I, where a statement engraved along the bottom sniffs that Drake was really the first circumnavigator because Magellan was “unfortunately Killed” and thus “cannot properly be intitled a Circumnavigator.” To enforce the point, the map in the Pacific Ocean marks “Here Magellan was Killed.” Campbell apparently intends to ignore the idea that Magellan was hardly the only person on the voyage and that many of that crew survived to claim the honor of being first well before Drake.
Emanuel Bowen (?-1767), engraver of many of the maps in this work, worked in partnership with Thomas Kitchin from the 1750s (Kitchen’s name is found on some of the maps in this volume along with Bowen’s; see Tooley and also Moreland & Bannister, Antique Maps, p. 166, for more on Bowen and Kitchen). The two enjoyed an international reputation, working for both George II of England and Louis XV of France. Bowen’s work is notable for its clarity, handsome cartographic decorative techniques, and his lengthy descriptive notes. Maps and plates of American and Australian interest in this set include:
A New & Correct Chart of All the Known World Laid down According to Mercator’s Projection...by Emanl. Bowen. Located before p. , in Vol. I. Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 547. Sea chart of the world with decorative title cartouche and four compass roses from which rhumb lines emanate across the seas. A portion of the coastline of Australia is shown, and one small section of the New Zealand coastline is marked. As in Bowen’s other maps of North America in this series, the interesting feature is not so much what is shown but how much is left to be discovered. In this map the Colorado River is named “North R.”
A New and Accurate Map of the World Drawn from the Best Authorities...Describing the Course of Each of the Following Circum-navigators...Magellan, Drake, and Anson. By Eman. Bowen Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. 7, in Vol. I. Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 546: “The Colorado River has its proper name.” The world is shown on an oval projection and tracks the course of the voyages of Magellan, Drake, and Anson. The northwest part of North America has the caption “Parts Undiscovered.” As discussed Bowen shows national prejudice, in this instance noting at lower center: "The Reader is desired to observe, that Sr. Francis Drake was the first navigator who made the Circuit of the Globe: For tho' Magellan was First in that Design, yet as he was unfortunately killed at one of the Ladrone Islands, he cannot properly be intitled [sic] a Circumnavigator."
Sir Francis Drake, Taken from an Original Painting Late in the Possession of Sr. Philip Sydenham Bart. Deceased. Located before p. 15, Vol. I. A very handsome portrait of the noted explorer who landed in California in 1579. The portrait accompanies the extensive chapter on Drake.
The Inhabitants of California in Their Respective Dresses. Four images of California Natives are shown (Pericú men fishing with a raft and harpoon and two women, one of whom is armed with a bow and arrows). These images are based on the plates that appeared in Shelvocke’s A Voyage round the World by Way of the Great South Sea... (London, 1726) See Cowan (I, pp. 211-212 & II, pp. 581-582); Mathes (California Colonial Bibliography 33), and Wagner (Spanish Southwest 88). Dr. W. Michael Mathes notes that two of the plates in Shelvocke’s Voyage were the second published images of Native Americans in California. In the present work, the engravings are larger than found in Shelvocke’s original publication.
A Complete Map of the Southern Continent Surveyed by Capt. Abel Tasman & Depicted by Order of the East India Company in Holland in the Stadt House at Amsterdam E. Bowen Sculp., Located before p. 325 in Vol. I. Clancy, The Mapping of Terra Australis 6.25. Perry, The Discovery of Australia: The Charts and Maps of the Navigators and Explorers, p. 60 & Plate 29. Tooley, The Mapping of Australia 241. This is the first appearance of Bowen’s version of the Thévenot-Tasman map of Australia, among the early English maps of Australia and the first English map solely concentrating on the region depicted. The map shows Australia with New Guinea and part of New Zealand as observed by Tasman in the 1640s. Two panels of text give a history and explanation of the map and a description of the region.
A New and Accurate Map of America. Drawn from the Most Approved Modern Maps and Charts, and Adjusted by Astronomical Observations; Exhibiting the Course of the Trade Winds Both in the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans by Eman. Bowen Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. , Vol. II. Wagner, Cartography of the Northwest Coast 545. California is correctly shown as a peninsula and the American northwest is devoid of detail with the notations "Parts Undiscovered" and "the supposed Straits of Annian." The lively title cartouche depicts natives and a European landing party. Two compass roses decorate the map.
A New & Accurate Chart of the Western or Atlantic Ocean Drawn from Surveys and Most Approved Maps & Charts. The Whole Being Regulated by Astronomical Observations by Eman. Bowen. Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. 3, in Vol. II. Text beneath the title cartouche claims that the discovery of the Americas was made by a prince of North Wales in the 12th century rather than by Columbus.
A New and Accurate Chart of the West Indies, with the Adjacent Coasts of North and South America...by Eman. Bowen Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. 39, Vol. II. Ornamental title cartouche, two compasses with radiating rhumb lines; routes of Spanish galleons traced. A very attractive map with excellent detail on navigation in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Like Moll, Bowen fills his blank spaces with interesting and sometimes amusing commentary. On the present map is text on the French-English map war, history (particularly piracy), and navigational tips, e.g.: The most difficult part of the Course of sailing thrô the Windward Passage, is from Port Royal to Point Morant, which being against the Trade Winds, takes up sometimes 5 or 6 weeks, thô but the distance of 20 Leagues....
The Interview of Cortes and Motezuma in the City of Mexico. [lower right in image]: J. Mynde, sc. [key below image]. Located before p. 97 in Vol. II. Mayer, México ilustrado, p. 93 (illustrated). This handsome print is ironic in presenting a pivotal, clashing collision of civilizations in dignified, classical style.
[Banner at top in image]: Antient Mexico [text below commencing]: [1. The Great Square.... plus 8 other locations]. Located before p. 115 in Vol. II. Lombardo, Atlas histórico de la ciudad de México, plate 103. A finely engraved prospect of the City of Mexico in the sixteenth century, with a numbered key below indicating the various important buildings and landmarks, including The Pleasure House & Garden.
A New Map of Georgia with Part of Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Drawn from Original Draughts Assisted by the Most Approved Maps and Charts. Collected by Eman. Bowen. Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. 323, Vol. II. Cumming 267. This rare, large-format, large-scale map showing the region from Charleston to the Mississippi River is one of the most sought-after early maps of Georgia. It is among the early maps to focus on Georgia, which is so named in the title (Benjamin Martyn’s 1741 map Georgia Part of Carolina showed basically the same area; Lotter’s 1747 map Georgia also showed the same area). Shown are early settlements, Native tribes friendly or hostile to the English, Native territories (shown by dotted lines), and trading paths and roads of the period. The map incorrectly positions New Orleans and bears a legend at Natchez stating that the Natchez Indians were “lately destroyed by the French.” This map was used in a 1981 Supreme Court battle over the location of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina at the mouth of the Savannah River. It was presented as evidence of Georgia's claim that the boundary lies on the northern bank of the river.
A Correct Draught of the North Pole and of All the Countries Hitherto Discovered, Intercepted Between the Pole and the Parallel of 50 Degrees...By Eman: Bowen., Geographer to His Majesty. Located before p. , in Vol. II. This highly detailed circular map of the northern hemisphere is dedicated to Arthur Dobbs, whose enthusiasm led to the first Royal Navy expedition in search of the Northwest Passage. It shows the routes of significant Arctic expeditions to the east as well as to the west, with tracks of the numerous attempts to find the Northeast and Northwest Passages to the economic riches of Asia. Much of Greenland and the western part of the North America remain “undiscovered,” and decorative cartouches conveniently obscure the unknown Northwest coast. (2 vols.) ($10,000-20,000)
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