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91. [MAP].  GRAY, O[rmando] W[illis] & SON.  Gray’s Railroad Map of Texas, Specially Prepared from Official Sources, 1877-8. Copyright, 1877 by O. W. Gray & Son. [top left corner] Drawn, Engraved and Published by O. W. Gray & Son, Geographers; Manufacturers of Maps and Atlases, 10 North Fifth Street, Philadelphia [large inset map at lower right]  Outline Map of Texas Showing the Railroad Connections with New Orleans, St. Louis, Etc. Lithograph map with original full color, routes boldly colored in red, pink, yellow, and green; neat line to neat line: 68.2 x 41.5 cm [inset map:  neat line to neat line: 20.4 x 21.2 cm], color key of Completed Railroad Lines at lower left. Verso contains text with description of Texas and partial list of post offices and train stations. Split at center fold (a few tiny losses), uniform browning, overall very good, with vibrant coloring.

     This map, which appeared in an atlas published by the Philadelphia firm of O. W. Gray & Son, appeared at a time when railroads in Texas were being aggressively expanded because of the need for transportation in the vast spaces of Texas.  No less than eighteen lines are shown, the proliferation of which was undoubtedly due to intense speculation on account of the rich incentives offered by Texas and the federal government. These gravy trains reached the end of the line when specifically prohibited by the Constitution after 1876. The railroads at this point are generally confined to east Texas with numerous lines projected to the west. Of the railroads shown, San Antonio is the terminus farthest west; because of the vast distances involved in west Texas, railroad completion was fairly slow.  One curious railroad on the map is the very short Rio Grande Railroad, which runs only from Brownsville to Point Isabel (this line was originally chartered by Richard King and Mifflin Kenedy of King Ranch fame).  The map is eye-catching with its brightly colored web of routes completed as well as projected routes, some of which were never to be.  Phillips, America, p. 847  1877.  Not in Day. ($100-200)

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