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October 26, 2007

The Cartographic Culmination of Manifest Destiny

146. [MAP]. UNITED STATES. GENERAL LAND OFFICE. GILMAN, E. [Untitled map of the United States showing boundaries after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]; [lower left below neat line] E. Gilman, Draftsman [lower right below neat line] P. S. Duval’s Steam Lith. Philada [text panel at left] Table Showing the Estimated Surface of the Territories of the United States.... [text panel at right] Table Exhibiting the Areas of the Several States and Territories of the United States, in Square Miles and Acres. [Philadelphia, ca. 1848]. Lithographed map with original shading and outline color (blue, grey, green, rose, yellow, pink); map measures from neat line to neat line: 35 x 55.3 cm; map plus panels: 35 x 84.7 cm. Creased where formerly folded, a few minor water spots at lower blank margin, mild chipping to blank margins, void in upper blank margin, one piece measuring approximately 9 x 8 cm separated from table (no loss). An important and little-known map.

            Early official U.S. map showing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Acquisition. The publication sequence of this map is not well understood. It appears that there are actually two quite similar issues of the map varying only in their imprint. Here the word “Steam” describes Duval’s press; in the other issue, that word is absent. Anderson 1686:1130. Garrett & Goodwin, The Mexican-American War, p. 414. Phillips, America, p. 900. Streeter Sale 3876. Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West 561 (no source stated). Wheat, Maps of the California Gold Region 42 (recording the source of the map as House Executive Document No. 1, 30th Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, 1848). The map appeared in various government documents in 1848 relating to the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush, including but not limited to:

UNITED STATES. PRESIDENT. (James K. Polk). Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress at the Commencement of the Second Session of the Thirtieth Congress. Washington: Wendell and Van Benthuysen, 1848, 1,275 pp. (Cowan II, p. 426. Howes P446; Kurutz, The California Gold Rush 105, not mentioning the present map).

UNITED STATES. PRESIDENT. (James K. Polk). Message of the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress. At the Commencement of the Second Session of the Thirtieth Congress. Washington: HRED1, 1848, 183 pp.

The map shows the entire United States, including the newly acquired areas in the Southwest, Oregon Territory, and the proposed territories of Minnesota and Nebraska. Texas is shown with its western border as the Rio Grande and a Panhandle slightly downsized from the huge Emory conformation. New Mexico is a small territory squeezed between the giants of Texas and California. The border between the United States and Mexico is the one agreed upon by the Treaty of Guadalupe of Hidalgo prior to before the Gadsden Purchase. Reflecting the continuing tension over slavery, the table at the right is divided into slave and free states. The table at lower left indicates that the United States has, as a result of the Mexican-American War, acquired just over two thousand additional miles of coastline.

            E. Gilman, a draftsman in the General Land Office, also created a map entitled Mississippi from the Surveys in the General Land Office [1837]. Peters, America on Stone, pp. 163-168): “All in all, we can safely say that P. S. Duval and his group occupy one of the most important places in American lithography.” See also Tooley, Vol. 2, p. 406, noting the imprint “Steam Lithographic Press” in 1849. ($500-1,000)

Sold. Hammer: $500.00; Price Realized: $587.50

Auction 21 Abstracts

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