Dorothy Sloan -- Books


First Comprehensive Survey of Native Americans in the U.S.

Monumental Report Copiously Illustrated with Plates, Photographs & Maps

546.     UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR. CENSUS OFFICE. Department of the Interior, Census Office. Robert P. Porter, Superintendent. Appointed April 20, 1889, Resigned July 31, 1893. Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor in Charge. Appointed October 5, 1893. Report on Indians Taxed and Indians Not Taxed in the United States (except Alaska) at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1894. [i-iii] iv-vii [1 blank], 1-683, [1 blank] pp., 205 plates: 21 chromolithographs by Julian Scott, William Gilbert Gaul, Peter Moran, Henry Rankin Poore, and Walter Shirlaw, some with gesso highlights, 2 of which are folded (“The Race” and “Omaha Dance”); 2 lithographs on tinted grounds; 182 leaves of black and white photographic plates (including work by Muybridge, Cantwell, and W.H. Jackson); plus 25 lithograph maps (some colored, 13 folded), including 3 large maps: [1] Map Showing Indian Reservations within the Limits of the United States Compiled under the Direction of Hon. T.J. Morgan, Commissioner of Indian Affairs [lower right below neat line] Sackett & Wilheims Litho Co NY, neat line to neat line: 53.5 x 84.5 cm; [2] Map of Linguistic Stocks of American Indians Chiefly within the Present Limits of the United States from Annual Report of Bureau of Ethnology Vol. 7. By J.W. Powell [lower right below neat line] Sackett & Wilheims Litho Co NY, neat line to neat line: 51.5 x 44.3 cm; [3] Map of Indian Territory and Oklahoma 1890 [center below neat line] Julius Bien & Co Lith. N.Y., neat line to neat line: 56.5 x 75 cm. 4to (29.6 x 25.5 cm), original blind-embossed black cloth, spine gilt lettered (professionally rebacked, preserving original spine, new sympathetic endpapers). Gilt lettering on spine chafed, cloth slightly rubbed and lightly touched up. Interior, plates, and maps very fine, some tissue guards present. This book is difficult to locate in acceptable condition.

     First edition (issued as Vol. X of the Census Reports, Eleventh Census, 1890). Graff 4396. Howes D418. McCracken, 101, p. 47: “Prior to 1850 Indians were not included in the United States Census. By 1890 the census included Indians living both on and off of the reservations, as well as those who had ‘abandoned their tribal relations and became citizens.’ This beautifully illustrated volume enumerates the Indian population in every imaginable category [and] contains a wealth of the sort of statistical information that only the government can produce.” Subjects include policy and administration of Native American affairs, population, education, land, vital and social statistics, tables for each state and territory, military engagements against Native Americans and their cost, depredation claims, liabilities of the U.S. to Native Americans, legal status of Native Americans, etc.

     This massive state-by-state survey includes detailed information and statistics on stock raising among Native American tribes. One of Julian Scott’s chromolithographs entitled “Issue Day” is a lively rendition of Native Americans chasing cattle. Some of the photographs document Native American stock raising, such as W.R. Cross’ “South Dakota. Issuing Beef Cattle to the Sioux at Rosebud Agency.”

     This work is essential for Native American studies and genealogy due to a fact noted by the Library of Congress: “Unfortunately, a 1921 fire in the Department of Commerce building resulted in the destruction of all but a few fragments of the 1890 census returns. A 683-page Bureau of the Census report, however, contains detailed descriptions of Indian tribes on reservations, arranged by state. Occasionally, there are specific references to individual Indians…. The destruction of the 1890 census is a double blow for those interested in Native American genealogy or history because that census was the first to enumerate all classes of Indians.”

     The work is accompanied by copious iconography, including chromolithographs by Julian Scott (1846-1901), a military and portrait painter best known for his plates in this volume and first recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor for battlefield bravery (Scott also wrote the text on the Moqui in this volume). Among Scott’s portraits of Native Americans is noted Comanche leader Quanah Parker (this print is listed in Ron Tyler’s unpublished work on Texas lithographs). “Economically, Parker promoted the creation of a ranching industry and led the way by becoming a successful and quite wealthy stock raiser himself. He also supported agreements with white ranchers allowing them to lease grazing lands within the Comanche reservation” (Handbook of Texas Online: Quanah Parker; also see Items 165 & 468 herein). Scott also contributed the portrait of noble Shoshone chief Washakie in full regalia at Fort Washakie, Wyoming, in 1891. The sharply chiseled portrait of Sioux Sitting Bull in South Dakota in 1890 was made by William Gilbert Gaul (1855-1919), an important recorder of military and Western life. The photographic illustrations document Native Americans as nothing else can, with portraits, abodes, social history, artifacts, architecture, and a way of life that was disappearing rapidly.

     The maps are valuable cartographic and ethnic documentation, especially master lithographer Julius Bien’s Map of Indian Territory and Oklahoma 1890. This outstanding map shows the Territory at a pivotal moment of transition. On April 22, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison formally opened the central tract, known as the “Oklahoma Country,” to settlement by non-Native Americans. The entire western portion of Indian Territory was organized as the Oklahoma Territory in 1890, and additional Native lands were opened to settlers over the course of the 1890s. The two territories were merged in 1907 to form the state of Oklahoma.