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A Gathering of Mexican Broadsides Relative to Texas, Mexico & the Borderlands
This strong gathering of Mexican broadsides relative to Texas, Mexico, and the Borderlands includes several imprints known by only one other copy. For reasons which we simply cannot understand, such rare and ephemeral pieces have too often been considered secondary Texana. We have listed the broadsides in chronological order. Together, they present a fascinating view of the dramatic unfolding of events in Texas and the borderlands from the early years of Mexican independence, through the Texas Revolution and Republic, down to Texas annexation and the outbreak of the Mexican-American War.
38. MEXICO (Empire). LAWS (February 25, 1823). [Printed decree, promulgated by José Antonio de Andrade, providing for a provincial deputation at Monterrey, with representatives from Nuevo León, Coahuila and Tejas]. Mexico, March 8, 1823. 1 p., folio. Very fine.
By this decree Texas is to be represented at the
Monterrey deputation, an act of political empowerment.
Streeter 695n (citing another issue, located only by the
TxU copy, and mentioning that he had a copy of the present
issue in his collection).
Vacant Texas Lands For Sale at 10 Pesos for 177 Acres
39. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (March 26, 1834). [Printed decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, providing for the sale at auction of vacant public lands of Coahuila y Tejas]. Monclova, March 26, 1834. 4 pp., folio. Some waterstaining and small section of blank centerfold neatly filled.
No doubt this decree spurred the animating pursuit
of land speculation. The minimum price in Texas is to be 10
pesos for each "millonada" [i.e., labor or 177 acres] of
land. An individual may purchase up to 275 millonadas.
Section 3 relates specifically to Texas colonists,
especially those residing east of Austin's colonies,
affirming titles of inhabitants under the Colonization Act
of 1825. Kimball 272.
"A Document of Powerful Impact"—Eberstadt
40. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (April 19, 1834). [Decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, authorizing the executive to distribute 400 sitios of land and appropriating $20,000 to pay state militia for protection against the ferocity of the Indian savages and their depredations, prohibiting gifts to the tribes, prohibiting sale of arms and ammunition, and stating that anyone violating the sale of arms will be declared an enemy of the state and condemned as traitor]. Monclova, April 19, 1834. 1 p., folio. Fine, with official manuscript notations.
This is a highly important decree relating to Native
Americans of our region, who are referred to as "this class
of enemies, who have never understood, or respected any
other right than that of superior force" (translation from
Kimball 278). The decree is also important in the history
of Texas land speculation, since the means to finance
repression of "the ferocity of the savages" was to be the
sale of vacant lands. Eberstadt 162:468 (priced at $500 in
1963): "Resounding significance.... Rupert Richardson
comments on the inconsistency of the Convention in
invalidating other of the grants while it let stand this
large one [Williams-Peebles-Johnson grant]." Streeter 806
(locating only his own copy, now at Yale): "I have included
this decree in the bibliography as it was under it that
Williams, Peebles, and F. W. Johnson obtained their four
hundred league grant which played such a prominent part in
the later controversies in Texas over land grants. Dr.
Barker in his classic article, 'Land Speculation as a Cause
of the Texas Revolution,' (Texas Historical Association
Quarterly, Vol. X, p. 76-95) devotes over two pages,
pages 79-82, to a discussion and partial translation of
this decree." Streeter, The Only Located Copies of One
Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets and Broadsides 64.
41. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (April 26, 1834). [Decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, establishing the municipality of San Patricio with its capital in the town of that name, the municipality of Mina with its capital in the new town of Mina, and transferring the capital of the municipality of Brazoria from Brazoria to Columbia]. Monclova, April 26, 1834. 1 p., folio. Very fine, with official rubrics and manuscript notations.
This decree relates to McMullen and McGloin, who
personally accompanied the first Irish colonists from New
York to Texas in 1829. They founded San Patricio in 1831.
Eberstadt 162:704. Kimball 283. Streeter 807 (4 copies):
"San Patricio was the town founded on the north side of the
Nueces River by [Irish] members of the McMullen and McGloin
colony. Mina was on the Bexar-Nacogdoches road where it
crosses the Colorado River. It is shown first in the 1836
Austin map of Texas.... The town was renamed Bastrop in
December, 1837." New Handbook III:870.
Robertson's Colony Contract Extended
42. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (April 29, 1834). [Decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, extending the colonization contract of Sterling C. Robertson for four years]. Monclova, April 29, 1834. 1 p., folio. Fine, with official manuscript notes.
Sterling C. Robertson brought colonists from
Nashville to Texas in 1830 but was prevented by the Mexican
Law of April 6, 1830, from settling them in his own colony.
In 1831 "since Austin was preparing to go to the state
capital as deputy for Texas in the legislature, Robertson
asked him to intervene for him.... Instead, [Austin]
applied for the same area, and obtained it for himself and
his secretary, Samuel May Williams [but they] did not issue
a single land title to actual settlers. However, they did
sell permits to non-resident speculators to locate huge
grants in that area. [Finally] the governor cancelled the
Austin and Williams contract insofar as it affected the
Nashville colony, and awarded a new contract to Sterling C.
Robertson as empresario" (New Handbook V:624).
Kimball 285. Surprisingly, not in Streeter. See item 52
herein for the attempt to return the Robertson's Colony
lands to Austin and Williams and item 92 herein for a
letter of Williams to a group of Alabama speculators. See
also 73 herein, an original Robertson's Colony grant.
"Texas Refuses to Recognize Santa Anna's Dictatorship"—Eberstadt
43. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (June 24, 1834). [Decree of the standing deputation convened with the council and other members of Congress present in the capital, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, declaring that the state does not recognize as legal the official acts of President Santa Anna since May 31]. Monclova, June 24, 1834. Fine, with rubrics of Vidaurri y Villaseñor and Secretary Antonio Padilla.
"This is the official announcement to the church,
the army, and the federal government that Texas refuses to
recognize Santa Anna's coup d'état and declines to
be governed by his illegal acts" (Eberstadt 162:713).
Streeter 810. It is not easy to follow the thread of reason
through the complicated decades following Mexican
Independence, but the one political actor in Mexico who
stands in sharp relief is Santa Anna. Upon assuming
absolute dictatorship of Mexico in 1834, Santa Anna
dissolved Congress, discharged all government employees
suspected of liberal leanings, and hand-picked a
conservative Congress that promptly set out to settle once
and for all the nonsense of popular sovereignty by
unraveling of the liberal Constitution of 1824. The
inevitable occurred, and the Texans, with the support of
liberal Mexicans, pronounced in this pivotal decree for the
restoration of the Constitution of 1824 and against the
dictatorship of Santa Anna.
"Troops of the standing army to be kept out of Texas"—Eberstadt
44. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (June 24, 1834). [Decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, warning the populace not to be deceived by the pronouncements of revolutionaries who screen themselves under the mantle of religion, banishing all such persons, and prohibiting troops of the standing army to be introduced into the state, under any pretence]. Monclova, June 24, 1834. 1 p., folio. Fine, with official manuscript notations.
This decree was an attempt by the government of
Coahuila y Tejas to cool down the political hotbed of
activity then raging. The Federalist-Centralist controversy
had stirred up a storm. On the far northern frontier in
Texas these reverberations could be felt in the Anahuac
disturbances, which were precipitating actions that would
result in the Texas Revolution. "The colonies were already
ablaze with the spirit of resistance, and were ripe for
rebellion" (Bancroft, Northern Mexican States &
Texas II, pp. 119-20). The present decree calls for
restoration of public tranquility and "the avoidance of any
internal overthrow" in Texas and Coahuila. Eberstadt
162:883. Kimball, p. 290. Not in Streeter, but see 796
& 810 for background.
45. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). [Circular, received from the governor of Querétaro and reissued by J. Antonio Padilla, Secretary of the state of Coahuila y Tejas, condemning attempts to undermine the authority of the government and addressing in particular attempts that were published in Mosquito Mexicano to manipulate elections]. Monclova(?), July 19, 1834. 1 p., folio. Fine, with official manuscript notations.
Not in Streeter. Bancroft, Northern Mexican States & Texas II, p. 145: "The period designated by the constitution for the elections arrived, and they were held under the disputed authority of the two rival and illegitimate governments, aggravating party animosity, and involving the state in anarchy." ($300-600)
"Texas Recognizes the Success of Santa Anna's Revolt"—Eberstadt
46. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (July 23, 1834). [Decree, promulgated by Governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor, recognizing Santa Anna as President of the Republic of Mexico]. Monclova, July 23, 1834. 1 p., folio. Some chipping and wear to top blank margin, otherwise very fine, with official manuscript notations of the Ayuntamiento of Santa Rosa.
This decree relates to the Centralist-Federalist
controversy, one of the issues that led to the Texan
Revolution. In this decree the Coahuilatecan government
"relinquishes its former sentiments" (see item 43 herein)
and recognizes Santa Anna as President. Eberstadt 162:717.
Kimball, p. 280. Not in Streeter, but see 796 & 810:
"In less than a month [after declaring they would no longer
recognize official acts of Santa Anna] the permanent
deputation bowed to the inevitable and adopted [the
decree], believing the will of the nation as expressed by a
majority of the states should be followed, it recognizes
Santa Anna as president and agrees to yield obedience to
47. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (August 30, 1834). [Decree of the standing deputation, promulgated by Juan José Elguezabal, saying that governor Vidaurri y Villaseñor is removed from office and the office entrusted to Elguezabal]. Monclova, August 30, 1834. 1 p., folio. Some chipping and wear to top blank margin, otherwise very fine.
"The shift in leadership reflects repercussions felt
in Texas from Santa Anna's coup d'état.... The
successor, Elguezabal, was chosen, no doubt, because of his
military experience, and the dispute between Monclova and
Saltillo was reaching white heat" (Eberstadt 162:718).
Streeter 811 (locating only his copy, now at Yale).
Streeter, The Only Located Copies of One Hundred Forty
Texas Pamphlets and Broadsides 65. Not in Kimball.
The Decree Authorizing the Infamous 400 Sitio Grants
48. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (March 14, 1835). [Decree of the Congreso constitucional, promulgated by José María Cantú, authorizing sale of 400 sitios of vacant land]. Monclova, March 14, 1835. 1 p., folio broadside, with official manuscript notations. Slightly waterstained at lower right corner, otherwise fine.
Under this decree, authorizing the sale of over
11,000 square miles of Texas land, John T. Mason and others
were granted vast tracts of land (Mason was the
confidential agent of the Galveston Bay and Texas Land
Company; see New Handbook IV:544 & Item 97
herein). This decree fueled the aspirations of Mason and
his Texas land speculators. It has been suggested that
grants based on this decree were largely responsible for
the repeal of the section of the Law of April 6, 1830,
forbidding further American colonization of Texas. This
decree was explicitly referred to in the Texas Constitution
of 1836, where it was declared that "each and every grant
founded thereon, is, and was from the beginning, null and
void." See item 50 herein. Kimball 293. Streeter 821
(locating only his copy, now at Yale). Streeter, The
Only Located Copies of One Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets
and Broadsides 67. "At this time, General Martin
Perfecto de Cos was comandant general of the eastern
internal provinces, and received orders to take action
about the late fraudulent land sales. Coahuila was a house
divided against itself.... The decree of March 14th
authorizing the sale of the lands affording a pretext, the
Saltillo deputies retired from the legislature, protesting
against the passage of it [and] Governor Cantú
called out the militia, and prepared to enforce obedience.
Cos, being appealed to, supported Saltillo, and...ordered a
company of presidial troops stationed at Saltillo to
enforce his decision and disband the militia at Monclova"
(Bancroft, Northern Mexican States & Texas II,
49. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (April 7, 1835). [Decree, promulgated by Marcial Borrego, addressing the present political and military tumult and the impending advance of regular army troops upon Monclova, and authorizing the executive to take such measures as he deems necessary to protect the state, including raising a militia and contracting loans to cover expenses]. Monclova, April 7, 1835. 1 p. folio. Slightly foxed, else fine.
The Coahuilatecan authorities by this decree attempt
to implement necessary measures to restore tranquility in
the face of mounting unrest and to protect the state.
Kimball 297. Not in Streeter. "The legislature...issued a
decree, April 7th, authorizing the governor to oppose the
entry of presidials into the city [see Bancroft quotation
in preceding entry]. Matters were assuming a serious
aspect" (Bancroft, Northern Mexican States & Texas
II, p. 154).
Repeal of the 400 Sitio Sale
50. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (April 25, 1835). [Decree of the Congreso general declaring invalid the decree of the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas of March 14, 1835, which authorized the sale of 400 sitios, as being contrary to the colonization law of August 18, 1824]. Mexico, April 25, 1835. 1 p., folio, printed on 4 pp. folder with integral blank. Fine. Very rare and important.
By this decree the Mexican government declared
invalid the previous controversial action of the Coahuila y
Tejas government granting 1,771,000 acres of Texas lands
and suspended all further colonization contracts of any
kind in Texas. Streeter 833: "This law also prohibited
further colonization contracts by the boundary states until
rules for such contracts were established." See item 48
herein. Streeter, The Only Located Copies of One Hundred
Forty Texas Pamphlets and Broadsides 71 (revised
edition of Streeter's Bibliography locates an
Coahuilatecan Policy on Native Americans
51. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (May 12, 1835). [Decree, promulgated by Agustín Viesca, authorizing the designation of vacant lands for situating the friendly and civilized Indians who have immigrated to Texas and to establish with the tribes a line of defense to protect from depredations by hostile tribes]. Monclova, May 12, 1835. 1 p., folio. Very fine, with official manuscript notations signed by José María Cantú.
An important decree reflecting the Indian policy of
the frontier state of Coahuila y Tejas on the eve of the
Texas Revolution. This decree related primarily to the
Cherokees, and was one of their arguments for ownership of
their East Texas lands, from which they were driven by the
Texans in 1839. Kimball 313. Not in Streeter.
Robertson's Colony Returned to Austin and Williams (Almost)
52. COAHUILA Y TEJAS (Mexican State). LAWS (May 18, 1835). [Decree, promulgated by Agustín Viesca, returning the Robertson Colony to the jurisdiction Stephen F. Austin and Samuel May Williams, and reaffirming the rights of the colonists under the four-year extension granted the previous year]. Monclova, May 18, 1835. 1 p., folio. Slightly trimmed at top and left blank margin a bit rough, but generally fine, with official manuscript notations signed by José María Cantú.
In fact, the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas did not
have a quorum present when this decree was passed, and
Robertson remained empresario of the colony. See item 42
herein, where Robertson's contract is extended. Not in
Streeter (we believe it important for Texas history, and
know that it is rare).
53. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (January 9, 1836). [Decree, approved by Miguel Barragan, President ad interim, and promulgated by José María Tornel, authorizing the government to dispose of half of the income of the departments while the war brought on by the Texas colonists continues]. Mexico, January 9, 1836. 1 p., folio. Official manuscript notations in ink. Fine.
The series of alarming events of rebellion in Texas,
culminating with the Siege of Bexar in late 1835, prompted
authorities in Mexico to issue this decree to raise the
funds needed to underwrite Santa Anna and his army of about
five thousand ill-provisioned green recruits who were
enduring the frightful ordeal of marching six hundred miles
from San Luis Potosí to San Antonio in the dead of
winter across the desert to punish the Texans. Santa Anna
had energy and nerve, but not a cent in his war chest. The
same might be said of the Texans. Eberstadt 162:868.
Streeter 871. Streeter, The Only Located Copies of One
Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets and Broadsides 83
(revised edition of Streeter's Bibliography locates
an additional copy).
Texas Ports are Closed
54. MEXICO (Republic). PRESIDENTE INTERINO (José Justo Corro). [Decree, promulgated February 9, 1836, by José María Tornel, Secretary of War and Marine, closing until further notice the ports of Matagorda, La Baca, San Luis, Goliad, Anahuac, Copano, and all Texas roadsteads between longitudes 94º50 and 101º10, commencing]: El C. José Gómez de la Cortina, Coronel del batallón del Comercio y Gobernador del Distrito...para cerrar los puertos ocupados por fuerzas que no obedezcan al Gobierno.... Mexico City, February 11, 1836. 1 p., folio broadside, with embossed seal. Fine.
Attempting to strangle the Texas rebellion, the
Mexican government closed its ports by this decree.
Eberstadt 162:524. Streeter 883 (noting that this bando
issue by Governor Cortina was the earliest issue he was
able to locate): "I have not been able to locate a copy of
the first publication of this decree."
55. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (March 23, 1836). [Decree authorizing the government to settle on the least onerous terms contracts for the clothing of the troops now on their way to Texas, commencing]: El C. José Gómez de la Cortina, Coronel del batallón del Comercio y Gobernador del Distrito.... Se autoriza al Gobierno para que en los términos mas equitavivos y menos gravosos al erario.... Mexico, March 29, 1836. 1 p., folio. Very fine.
Only days after the fall of the Alamo, the Mexican
government now takes action to properly provision Santa
Anna's army of recruits, many of whom had perished from
exposure during their terrible march to Texas. Eberstadt
162:515. Streeter 874 (no copy located, but Yale has this
Federal District bando). Streeter, The Only Located
Copies of One Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets and
"One of the Laws Passed as a Result of Victory at the Alamo"—Streeter
56. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (April 9, 1836). [Decree, approved by José Justo Corro, President ad interim, and promulgated by José María Tornel, making effective the right of the nation to indemnify itself for expenses and losses incurred in the Texan war by confiscating the property of those promoting it. With heading]: Secretaría de Guerra y Marina. Sección Central. Mesa 1a. Mexico, April 9, 1836. 1 p., folio. Very fine.
Eberstadt 162:837. Streeter 875 (locating only his
own copy): "This was one of the laws passed in the wave of
enthusiasm resulting from the victory at the Alamo."
Streeter, The Only Located Copies of One Hundred Forty
Texas Pamphlets and Broadsides 87.
57. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (April 9, 1836). [Decree, approved by José Justo Corro, President ad interim, and promulgated by José María Tornel, making effective the right of the nation to indemnify itself for expenses and loses incurred in the Texan war by confiscating the property of those promoting it, commencing]: El C. José Gómez de la Cortina, Coronel del batallón del Comercio y Gobernador del Distrito.... Mexico, April 11, 1836. 1 p., folio. Very fine.
This is the federal district bando issue of the
previous item. Eberstadt 162:838.
National State of Mourning Declared for Prisoner Santa Anna
58. MEXICO (Republic). PRESIDENTE INTERINO (José Justo Corro). [Decree, promulgated May 20, 1836, by José María Tornel, Secretary of War and Marine, declaring a national state of mourning to continue while Santa Anna is a prisoner]. Mexico, May 20, 1836. 1 p., folio, printed on 4 pp. folder with integral blank. Very fine.
Santa Anna had been taken prisoner by the Texans
following the Battle of San Jacinto. Not in Streeter, but
he makes note of the circular in his 884; see also 879
& 890. Eberstadt 162:706a.
Texian Rebels Denounced for Winning Battle of San Jacinto
59. MEXICO (Republic). SECRETARÍA DE RELACIONES. [Circular publishing a letter June 1, 1836, by the Secretary of Relations of Mexico denouncing the Texas colonists for winning their independence at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, and asking for contributions to the national treasury to free Santa Anna from the Texan rebels, with heading]: Gobierno del Departamento de Tamaulipas. Circular. Ciudad Victoria, June 13, 1836. 2 pp., folio, printed on 4 pp. folder with integral blank. Minor foxing and creasing, but generally fine, with official rubrics. Rare and interesting.
The Tamaulipas issue of Streeter 892. Streeter cites
the Nuevo Léon issue (locating only his copy) and
continues in his note: "Presumably this letter or something
very similar to it was sent by the Secretary to the
governors of the other departments for I have noted, but
not entered, an example dated June 1, sent to the governor
"Texas Granted a Separate Existence—Too Late"—Eberstadt
60. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (December 30, 1836). [Decree, promulgated by José María Ortiz Monasterio, dividing the country into as many Departments as there formerly were States, separating Coahuila from Texas and authorizing the central government to locate the capital of Texas where most convenient when order is re-established there]. Mexico, December 30, 1836. 1 p., folio. A few worm holes affecting only 3 letters of text, otherwise fine.
"Had this decree been passed in 1833, Texas might be
a Mexican state today" (Eberstadt 162:581). Streeter 882
(locating only his copy, now at Yale). Streeter, The
Only Located Copies of One Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets
and Broadsides 94.
61. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (May 17, 1845). [Decree, promulgated by Luis G. Cuevas, authorizing the government to hear the proposition made by Texas and to agree on a treaty recognizing Texas independence, to be submitted to Congress for its approval. Commences]: El C. Manuel Rincón, General de División y Gobernador constitucional del Departamento de México.... Mexico, May 20, 1845. 1 p., folio. Official manuscript notations in ink, vertical ink line on left eroding through paper.
In 1844-45 the government of Texas was
simultaneously seeking both an offer of annexation by the
United States and recognition of its independence by
Mexico. Sam Houston's intention was to submit both offers
to the Texas Congress for action, thereby forcing Texas to
an unequivocal decision on its future. Eberstadt 162:224.
Bando issue of Streeter 1020 (2 copies located, the
Streeter copy now at Yale, and another copy in Mexico).
Santa Anna Banished
62. [SANTA ANNA, ANTONIO LÓPEZ DE]. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (May 24, 1845). [Decree, promulgated by Manuel Rincón, granting amnesty to virtually everyone involved in the uprisings of December 1844, but specifically excepting Santa Anna and banishing him from Mexico, with heading]: El ciudadano Manuel Rincón, General de División y Gobernador constitucional del Departamento de México. Mexico, May 25, 1845. Double folio broadside bando. Creased where formerly folded, small section of lower left blank margin clipped where removed from a legajo, else very fine. Exceedingly rare.
Broadside poster, meant to be posted in public
places for all to read. The disgraced and banished Santa
Anna moved to Cuba, but returned (with U.S. help) in August
of the following year just in time to lead the Mexican
nation to defeat and humiliation in the Mexican-American
War. Not in Ramos, Sutro, etc. See item 76 herein.
Mexico's Call to Arms to Prevent 'La Usurpación De Tejas'"—Eberstadt
63. MEXICO (Republic). LAWS (June 4, 1845). [Decree, promulgated by Luis G. Cuevas, providing that the Mexican nation call all her sons to the defense of the national independence threatened by the annexation of Texas to the U.S., and secondly, that the government place under arms all the forces of the army authorized by the existing laws, and also raise, as allowed by a decree of December 9, 1844, an additional force under the name of "Defensores de la independencia y de las leyes"]. Mexico, June 4, 1845. 4 pp., 8vo folder printed on first  pages. Very fine.
Eberstadt 162:226. Streeter 1021A (two copies
located, one in Mexico City, and the Streeter copy, now at
Yale). This is the reset issue, but Yale has the Federal
Prelude to the Mexican-American War
64. DEPARTAMENTO DE ORIENTE. COMANDANTE GENERAL (Mariano Arista). El General de División Mariano Arista Comandante General de los Departamentos de Oriente y en Gefe de la cuarta División militar, à las tropas de su mando.... [Announces that the United States has declared Texas a part of its territory]. [Monterrey, July 25, 1845]. 1 p., folio broadside. Void in text filled in with facsimile from the Yale copy.
"This is a 'fight talk' by Arista to his troops who,
he says, are envied by the rest of the army for being the
nearest to the field of battle. Though Mexico threatened to
declare war on the United States when, in July, 1845, it
learned that the Texas convention had voted to accept
annexation, this declaration was not made until March,
1846, when the United States forces advanced to the Rio
Grande opposite Matamoros" (Streeter 1009, locating only
the Streeter copy, now at Yale). Streeter, The Only
Located Copies of One Hundred Forty Texas Pamphlets and
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