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White, Gallaher & White’s map is an edition in Spanish of Tanner’s 1826 map (see pre-



Gallaher & White translated Tanner’s English title, legends, and place

names into Spanish and slightly enlarged his map and its scale. Both Tanner’s English-

language map and White, Gallaher & White’s Spanish-language reworking served as

precursors for Disturnell’s Treaty Map. These three versions of the map are exceptional-

ly signi


cant due to their historical context and function with regard to the Treaty of

Guadalupe Hidalgo. Together the Tanner,

White, Gallaher

& White, and Disturnell

maps document the cartographical sequence that resulted in the boundary dispute fol-

lowing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Crossroads of Empire


Martin & Martin,

Maps of Texas and the Southwest, 1513-1900,

Plate 37 & p. 137. Rittenhouse,

Disturnell’s Treaty Map

, pp. 13-16 (#1) (designating White,

Gallaher & White’s 1828 map as “one edition known”): “One of Tanner’s maps, that of

1826, was copied and published in 1828 by the


rm of White, Gallaher &White, of New

York City. This is the map whose plates were bought by Disturnell and used for print-

ing the Disturnell

Maps of 1846-1858. It has often been said that

White, Gallaher &

White (and Disturnell) plagiarized or ‘pirated’ this map. It was obviously copied from

Tanner’s map, but there is no proof that it was done with intent to defraud. It might

have been done as the result of an agreement. The White,

Gallaher & White map was

issued in 1828, and that was the year in which the United States made a Treaty of Limits

with Mexico. There was a market demand in Latin America for a map with all the leg-

ends and place names in Spanish. The Tanner map was in English; White,

Gallaher &

White made a map with all legends in Spanish.... The original

White, Gallaher &White

map was


(engraved) by Balch & Stiles of New York. Their name, together with

the copyright notice was imperfectly removed and appears faintly on all



printed from these plates from 1846 through 1858.” Streeter Sale 222: “This

map is

included as it is such a direct source for Disturnell’s Map of

Mexico with the same title,

published in New York in 1846, that Col.

Martin in his elaborate survey,



, calls it the


rst of the 24 editions of that map, and the map published by Disturnell

in 1846 the second. This White, Gallaher & White map in turn follows closely, even to

errors, the Tanner Map of

Mexico of 1825.—TWS.” Wheat,

Mapping the Transmississippi


#384, Vol. II, pp. 95-96 & Vol. III, p. 36.


Maps of the Gold Region


Of the Treaty Map sequence of over thirty-


ve maps,


Gallaher & White’s

map (Streeter 222), Tanner’s 1826 issue (Streeter 3824), and Rosa’s version published

in Paris in 1837 (Streeter 233) are the most di


cult to obtain.

We have had White,

Gallaher & White’s map only once before (1987 @ $3,000); this is the only record for

the map that we


nd in the Morrison guides.



nd no records of sales in the com-

piled auction records back to 1975, or in the Antique Map Price Records back to 1983.

Streeter’s copy of

White, Gallaher & White’s map fetched $500 in 1966, as compared



ve editions of Disturnell’s map in the same auction (Streeter 254-257 & 278) which

realized $250 (1846), $250 (1847), $160 (1847), $60 (1847), and $250 (1848). The last

copy of Tanner’s 1826 map we


nd o


ered at auction was in 1969 at the Streeter Sale

(the same copy as listed in our entry 1 above). Interestingly, Rosa’s

map, which

Streeter (233) described as “an example of an independent plagiarism of the 1834 of

Tanner’s map” brought $90 at the 1966 Streeter Sale. Two copies of the Rosa map are

being o


ered on the market as we write, both around $85,000. A copy of the Rosa

map sold at Sotheby’s (New York) in 1999 at $20,000.

We locate copies of White, Gallaher &White’s map at The University of Texas at Austin,

The University of Texas at Arlington, and Yale (Streeter’s copy).


boundary west of El Paso, bringing it further north. This 1826 issue is the map which

became the source for Disturnell’s celebrated ‘

Mapa de los estados Unidos de Méjico,’


rst published in 1846....”; #364n & Vol. II, pp. 229-230 (quoting Lawrence Martin’s

sequence of editions of Tanner’s map and his commentary): “The 1825 edition of Tanner’s

Map of

Mexico evidently derived the southern boundary of New Mexico directly from

the one on Baron von Humboldt’s map of New Spain published in 1809 [1811]. In the

1826 edition of his map of

Mexico, however, Tanner deleted the southern boundary of

New Mexico west of the Rio Grande and replaced it with a new boundary which is seen

about eight miles farther north in the western part and eighty miles farther north in the

eastern part. It is this latter boundary which was reproduced by White, Gallaher


White in 1828 and by Disturnell in 1846 and 1847. All the Tanner maps of

Mexico from

1825 to 1847...are chie


y important because they represent the original source of

Disturnell’s Map.” Wheat,

Maps of the Gold Region


Martin &Martin,

Contours of Discovery

, pp. 55-56: “It is...ironic that while Tanner con-

tinued to issue updated and improved versions of his own

map of the developing

Southwest, it was Disturnell’s plagiarism which became the accepted standard and the

most widely circulated depiction of the area.... The [Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]



ed that this New Mexican border, which then became the international boundary,

was that laid down on the Disturnell

map [as copied from Tanner by White,


and White and then Disturnell]. Because of [Tanner’s] erroneous depiction of the Rio

Grande and the resulting distortion of the surrounding topography on the Disturnell

map, this clause of the treaty was to result in great di


culty for the o


cial joint bound-

ary commission when it attempted to survey the line on the ground, and it created great

controversy in Washington.”

Checking American Book Prices Current back to 1975 and Morrison guides back to

1987, we


nd no copies of this 1826 Tanner map. Antique Map Price Records back to 1983

show only a copy of the 1826 edition (with condition problems) o


ered by High Ridge

in 1994, but the Wheat citation provided (#529) is for a 1846 edition. The last copy of the

1826 Tanner map that we


nd at auction was the Streeter copy, which is the present copy.





Mapa de los Estados

Unidos de

Méjico, segun lo organizado y de


nido por las varias actas del Congreso de dicha República y

construido por las mejores autoridades. Lo publican White, Gallaher y White. Nueva York. 1828.

Grabado por Balch y Stiles,

Nueva York.

Three insets at lower left: (1)

Tabla de Distancias;


Tabla de Estadistica;


Carta de los caminos

&c. desde Vera Cruz y Alvarado a Méjico.

Upper right: Large engraving of

Mexican eagle with snake in its beak, perched on cac-

tus with names of Mexican states lettered on pads (including

Coahuila y Tejas




). Engraved map, original shading and outline coloring. 73.7 x 104 cm (29 x 41


Mounted on linen. Rough condition, foxed and stained, original coloring

faded, some losses (especially at margins, printed border, old folds, a few letters of title,

table of distances, and portions of Northern Mexico, etc.). This map should be placed in

the hands of a gentle, expert conservator. Perhaps the single most rare map in the Treaty

Map sequence.

First edition

of the White, Gallaher &White version of the Treaty Map (Rittenhouse,

Lawrence Martin, and other authorities state that only one edition of White, Gallaher &

White’s map was published; Lawrence Martin considered the White, Gallaher & White

map of 1828 to be the


rst edition of the legendary Treaty Map sequence.